2002 Ford Explorer Dynamics

    Driving Dynamics

    “The dynamics targets for the new Explorer were clear: Make it
    ride and handle better than ever before, including being more
    stable, safer, easier to drive and more reassuring. In order to
    achieve that, we had to start over and design the first
    purpose-built chassis for a Ford SUV – an all-new Explorer from the
    tires to the roof-rack.”


            - Dale Claudepierre,
    Compact Sport Utility Vehicle Line Director


    • New independent rear suspension with “porthole-in-frame”
      design, allowing for an additional third row of seats and
      seven-passenger seating, as well as improved ride and handling
    • Better off-road capability with increased ground
      clearance and better approach and departure angles
    • Coil-over-shock and short- and long-arm (SLA) front
      suspension
    • New AdvanceTrac™ interactive vehicle dynamics
      system, combining the benefits of traction control and electronic
      stability (yaw) control (available later in 2001)
    • Improved Control-TracTM 4×4 system
    • Improved turning radius, and steering column and
      steering wheel enhancements
    • Standard antilock brakes with electronic brake force
      distribution (EBD) and improved brake operation

    The 2002 Ford Explorer’s new independent rear suspension is
    literally at the base of the vehicle’s most significant innovations
    - including its improved ride, handling and package. Added to this
    are a stiffer frame, more precise steering, new front suspension,
    improved powertrains and several chassis detail changes – all of
    which work to fulfill Explorer’s promise of offering a significantly
    smoother and more pleasant driving experience.

    The dynamics team focused on four key attributes related to the
    driving experience: agility, precision, stability and comfort. The
    objective was to create the ideal balance between the four without
    making compromises.

    Independent Rear Suspension

    Explorer’s new independent rear suspension (IRS) system replaces
    the former solid axle design. IRS offers significantly better
    handling over both smooth and rough surfaces. Working with the new
    front suspension, IRS reduces rear-end squat during acceleration and
    front dive/rear jacking during emergency braking.

    IRS offers ride and handling benefits over a solid rear axle
    design because each wheel reacts independently to bumps in the road,
    moving both up and rearward to absorb the bumps and reduce impact
    harshness. The result is improved ride quality.

    Because each component performs very specific tasks, the
    suspension can be designed to be extremely stiff laterally, while
    offering more longitudinal compliance.

    These two important functions are more easily separated than in
    traditional solid-axle designs, which typically offer high
    longitudinal stiffness – because the axles are bolted to long leaf
    springs and, thus, offer imprecise lateral control.

    The IRS’s ability to soak up longitudinal forces, such as those
    imposed by potholes or sharp pavement bumps, translates directly
    into a more comfortable ride and reduced harshness. Maintaining
    lateral stiffness helps keep the rear of the vehicle from swaying
    side-to-side in bumps or maneuvers. Likewise, it reduces
    sensitivity to wind gusts. In addition, the suspension’s ability to
    maintain optimum contact between the tires and pavement also helps
    communicate important feedback – handling “feel” – to the driver
    through the steering wheel.

    In highway dips, Explorer’s suspension is designed to deliver a ride
    that’s plush without wallowing. In abrupt, high-speed lane changes,
    Explorer is designed to respond quickly to steering and track
    predictably.

    Explorer’s new IRS configuration also is designed to drastically
    reduce rear-end skate, which is the lateral movement that occurs
    when a vehicle with a solid rear axle travels over sharp bumps or
    washboard/corrugated road surfaces.

    The new suspension has a short- and long-arm (SLA) and
    coil-over-shock design. The upper control arm is cast aluminum.
    The lower control arm is stamped steel.

    The IRS configuration permits the rear floor of the vehicle to be
    lowered nearly 7 inches. This lower floor allows the new Explorer
    to offer an optional third-row seat with plenty of headroom and
    without compromising cargo space or utility. Even with the lower
    floor, overall ground clearance was able to be improved an inch -
    which strengthens the vehicle’s off-road capabilities.

    This innovative packaging of the new IRS system is achieved
    through the “porthole-in-frame” design technique. The design is
    related to the way the rear half-shafts are packaged – literally via
    holes in the frame versus under the frame.

    A traditional truck or SUV frame is straight from front to back,
    with ladder-like braces across it for strength. The line cannot be
    completely straight, however, because it would run into the rear
    axle assembly.

    That is why nearly every manufacturer puts a large semi-circular
    bend in the frame to follow the rear wheel well. The rear axle then
    runs beneath it, which limits interior space. For Explorer, using
    the traditional wisdom would have meant a narrow third-row seat.

    To overcome these obstacles, the Explorer team members had to
    think differently.

    “After a brainstorming session one day, we asked ourselves why we
    were trying to work around the frame. Instead, we decided to put a
    porthole in it and work with it,” explains Manfred Rumpel, chassis
    integration manager. “We worked out some calculations in basic
    frame theory and physics, and we were able to prove that a
    porthole-in-frame design would have all the necessary strength and
    much better packaging flexibility.”

    The circular hole on each side of the rear frame is reinforced
    with a steel tubular tunnel that provides exceptional strength and
    room for the half-shafts to move.

    Rumpel and other team members have applied for five patents on
    Explorer, including the “porthole-in-frame” design.

    Other rear changes include the shock damping, which has been
    increased to reduce suspension bounce and make the vehicle feel more
    firmly planted on the ground when traversing rough surfaces and
    undulating roads.

    A new hollow rear stabilizer bar is used. It is nearly
    40-percent lighter than the previous solid bar but provides
    comparable performance. Urethane bushings – used previously in
    front stabilizer bars only – are now used in the rear. The change
    further helps to isolate the driver from road noise.

    Front suspension

    Explorer’s front suspension also is a short- and long-arm (SLA)
    design with significant revisions such as a shorter front-end
    overhang that result in a tighter turning circle (36.7 feet versus
    the previous 38.4 feet), crisper steering, improved response to
    sharp bumps, better cornering capabilities and enhanced
    durability.

    The front suspension also uses a coil-over-shock design,
    replacing the previous torsion bar arrangement. Switching from
    torsion bars to coil springs reduces rough-road steering column
    shake and ride harshness by allowing suspension components to better
    absorb fore-aft impact forces when a wheel hits a sharp bump. Coil
    springs also maintain vehicle ride height better than torsion bars -
    thus reducing the potential for front-end realignment in older
    vehicles.

    Shock damping has been increased, as in the rear. Also changed
    are all-new upper and lower control arms, bushings, and stabilizer
    links and retainers. The stabilizer bar is held in position with
    urethane bushings that offer better on-center steering than
    traditional rubber bushings.

    Also improved is the “scrub radius” – the distance between the
    tire centerline and the point at which an imaginary line between the
    upper and lower ball joints intersects with the ground. It has been
    reduced from 2.5 inches to 0.5 inches. Minimizing the scrub radius
    improves tire wear and straight-line tracking by reducing pull when
    front braking is uneven.

    Driver feedback also benefits from a considerable attention to
    detail. Explorer’s brake pedal is designed to be firm and
    progressive, allowing the driver to modulate braking force by feel.
    Acceleration is strong at tip-in, without excessive whine and roar.
    The throttle-cable was tuned to damp vibrations that could travel
    via the cable through the accelerator pedal and to the driver’s
    foot. The engine is designed to sound reassuringly healthy under
    full-throttle runs, but disappear into the background at normal
    speeds.

    AdvanceTrac™ Interactive Vehicle Dynamics

    Explorer will be available with AdvanceTrac™- a computer-driven
    interactive vehicle dynamics system – later in 2001. It is Ford’s
    first SUV available with such technology. The system enhances
    stability in extreme driving conditions when drivers misjudge speed
    or road conditions.

    Developed in conjunction with Ford’s involvement with Formula One
    racing, the optional AdvanceTrac™ system monitors driver
    inputs, such as steering, throttle and brakes, and the corresponding
    vehicle response – yaw, lateral acceleration and wheel speed – to
    control brake force distribution and vehicle stability.

    AdvanceTrac™ helps maintain vehicle stability at the limits
    of tire adhesion via a combination of yaw rate sensors, the antilock
    braking system and traction control system.

    Data from the yaw rate sensor, a steering-wheel position sensor,
    a lateral acceleration sensor and wheel speed sensors are monitored
    through the ABS control module.

    When required, AdvanceTrac™ applies the brakes at one or
    more wheels to correct excessive yaw. If the vehicle’s yaw rate is
    excessive in a turn, brake force on the outside front wheel helps
    keep the vehicle on the desired path. If the yaw rate is lower than
    that intended by the driver, force is applied to the inside front
    brake.

    Explorer’s antilock braking system with electronic brake force
    distribution will be offered from introduction. The fully
    integrated AdvanceTrac™ system will be introduced later in 2001.

    Improved Control TracTM 4×4 Performance

    Explorer’s optional Control TracTM four-wheel-drive system has
    been refined for 2002 to make it more “transparent” to the driver,
    while improving its abilities in limited traction situations. (For
    details, see Powertrain/Drivetrain section.)

    Steering

    All Explorer models are equipped with power rack-and-pinion
    steering, in addition to the steering improvements provided by the
    revised front suspension geometry – including a 1.7-foot tighter
    turning radius. The system has a modified steering linkage that
    results in a more precise feel.

    A tilt/rake steering column is standard on XLS and XLT models. A
    combination tilt/telescoping, rake/reach column is standard on Eddie
    Bauer and Limited models. The steering column tilts over an arc
    range of 2.8 inches and telescopes over a range of 1.8 inches.

    The steering wheel itself also has been redesigned to improve its
    feel across a broader range of hand sizes. Key changes include
    re-profiled detents on the backside of the wheel.

    Brakes

    Explorer’s four-wheel disc brakes have been improved for quieter
    operation and more responsive pedal effort and consistency.

    Explorer’s four-wheel, three-channel antilock braking system
    (ABS) with electronic brake force distribution (EBD) is standard.
    The ABS controls the front wheels independently and the rear wheels
    in tandem during heavy braking – to improve vehicle control.

    The ABS with EBD employs dynamic proportioning to achieve shorter
    stopping distances. It works by measuring braking force versus
    traction and allocating brake force to the wheels that have the best
    grip for stopping even before the ABS system kicks in. This helps
    reduce the braking distance.

    The front discs have: larger rotors (305 millimeters compared
    with 286 mm) for reduced operating temperatures; new
    low-metallic-content, non-asbestos lining for reduced noise; stiffer
    calipers with added lining volume and swept area to provide more
    uniform brake pad loading for reduced noise and wear; and an
    optimized brake pad insulator for reduced brake noise.

    The rear discs increase from 11.2 inches to 11.8 inches (285 mm
    to 301 mm).

    Tires

    Explorer is available in a wide variety of tires and wheels – all
    carefully selected to match and enhance the vehicle’s dynamics
    capabilities. They include P235/70R16 all-season tires for the XLS
    and XLT series. The all-season tires are engineered for improved
    ride, steering, noise and fuel economy.

    For the Eddie Bauer and Limited models, Explorer is fitted with
    P255/70R16 all-terrain tires. They are engineered for improved
    ride, fuel economy, noise reduction and all-weather capability.

    The tires are mounted on 16- by 7-inch wheel designs – varying
    from full-face steel and cast aluminum to cast five-spoke aluminum
    and chrome full-face steel, depending on the model.