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  #1  
Old 12-26-2003, 03:45 PM
Donald Rohret Donald Rohret is offline
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Question How many GEM systems?

How many GEM systems are there in a Ranger? My Hayne's Manual shows four different fuses for GEM systems. Are they all separate? For the record mine is an XLT, '95, 2wd, auto tranny, and a 3 liter engine. It's a basic bare bones model without anti-theft, auto windows, auto door locks, or a door ajar light. I guess we need some input from someone with a shop electrical manual.
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Old 12-26-2003, 05:31 PM
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There is only one Generic Electronic Module as far as I know.
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Old 12-26-2003, 08:10 PM
Donald Rohret Donald Rohret is offline
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Question

Why are there four fuses labeled GEM?
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Old 12-27-2003, 02:07 AM
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Possibly to protect the GEM from any spikes coming from or going to any systems that run through the GEM. Just a thought, I'm more than likely wrong.
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Old 12-27-2003, 12:24 PM
Donald Rohret Donald Rohret is offline
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Question

After I've had some time to think about it, I wonder if what's really being fused is not the GEM itself, but rather the item that is feeding it's output to the GEM. Do you suppose? There is a separate fuse listed for the GEM only. So your idea about the prevention of spikes makes sense. The fusing of items that feed the GEM would prevent them from loading down the GEM if they happened to develop an electrical problem.
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Old 12-27-2003, 02:35 PM
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I would like to see a detailed description of all the functions of the GEM.
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Old 12-27-2003, 05:38 PM
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Only one GEM, I would guess thats its monitoring the power to those components. Heres everything you want to know about the functions.

GEM Controlled Functions
The Generic Electronic Module (GEM) incorporates the functions of several different modules into one and offers diagnostics to easily locate and repair concerns affecting the subsystems that it controls.

The GEM constantly monitors the system and reports concerns in the form of diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs). The DTCs can be retrieved with the Rotunda New Generation Star (NGS) Tester 007-00500 or equivalent through the communication link.

The NGS is a menu-driven tester, allowing the user to run specific diagnostic tests. The NGS can isolate faults in the GEM subsystems through a symptom-driven diagnostic procedure. Connecting the tester to the GEM communication link will NOT alert the GEM. If the GEM is "asleep" when the diagnostic connector is plugged in, the GEM must be "awakened." If the communication link cannot be established, it is advised to turn the ignition to RUN.

NOTE: The GEM has a sleep function to minimize battery consumption. During the sleep mode, the GEM turns off all outputs and monitors only the following:

Door ajar (driver's door, passenger's door, liftgate, rear right and rear left doors)
Key in ignition
Key in RUN or ACCY
Door handles (driver's or passenger's)
Two-step unlock switch
Neutral safety switch
Illuminated entry request — RAP module
If a change of status occurs at one of these inputs while the GEM is asleep, the GEM will "wake up." When the GEM awakens, it performs an internal self test, and begins normal operation. At this point, the GEM will have all of its functions operational.

The GEM will go into the sleep mode immediately after both of the following conditions have been met:

Key in OFF or key not in ignition
After 45 minutes with no change on any wake-up input
The GEM control system has two modes of operation, the normal operating mode and tester dependent diagnostics mode.

The normal operation of the GEM can detect errors. An integral part of the normal GEM operation is the continuous diagnostics capability. Continuous diagnostics detects errors and changes the GEM control strategy. There is no warning light for the GEM; therefore, a DTC concern will direct you to the GEM. Examples of faults that may be detected during normal operation include:

GEM continuous self test (RAM, ROM, EEPROM, A/D checking)
Output driver monitoring (open circuit/short to GND, short to battery)
NOTE: The GEM can only detect open circuit/short to GND faults when the GEM is not energizing a load, and short to battery faults when the GEM is attempting to energize a load.

Illogical combinations of input signals
A description of the subsystems controlled by the GEM follows.

Heated Backlite and Mirror Timer

When the rear window defrost switch is pressed, a 10-minute timer is started and the GEM energizes a relay that provides battery voltage to the heated backlite (and the outside rear view mirrors if installed). The rear window defrost heats up to defog the rear window or melt accumulated snow or ice.

The GEM de-energizes the relay either when 10 minutes have elapsed, the rear window defrost switch is pressed again, or the ignition switch (11572) is turned to OFF or ACCESSORY. The 10-minute timer is temporarily halted if the ignition switch is turned to START and resumes after the ignition switch is returned to RUN.

Windshield Wiper Control and Interval Timer

There are five modes of operation for the front wipers: MIST, INTERVAL (standard and speed-dependent), LOW, HIGH and WASH.

These modes are only active with the ignition switch in the RUN or ACCY position.

Front Windshield Wiper Control (with Speed Dependent Interval Wiper)

Modes: OFF, Interval, LOW, HIGH, and WASH.

The GEM responds to the windshield wiper control commands by interpreting inputs from the steering column seven-position delay/wash and four-position mode select switches. Speed dependent wipers compensate for the extra moisture that accumulates on the windshield at higher speeds. At higher speeds, the speed dependent feature shortens the delay between wipes when using the variable interval wipers. Delays will automatically adjust at speeds between 16 and 105 km/h (10 and 65 mph).

The GEM relay drivers control three external relays: wiper high/low speed relay, dynamic brake-run relay, and the washer pump relay. When the washer switch is activated longer than 300 ms, the wash and wiper (low speed) functions are provided until the switch is released. The release of the switch will be followed by three low speed wipes. If the switch is pressed between 100 ms and 300 ms (with the mode in the OFF position), the wiper system will provide one wipe at low speed with no wash.

INTERVAL

For standard interval, the time between low-speed wipes will range from 1.5 to 20 seconds. These delays will shorten as vehicle speed increases up to 105 km/h (65 mph).

HI

This is the fastest wiper speed with no dwell. It is selected when the multi-function switch (13K359) is in the HI speed position. If the wash button is pressed for 0.3-10 seconds, the washer pump will energize until the wash button is released.

LO

This is the slowest wiper speed with no dwell. It is selected when the multi-function switch is in the LO speed position. If the wash button is pressed for 0.3-10 seconds, the washer pump will energize until the wash button is released.

WASH

If the wash button is pressed for 0.3-10 seconds, the washer pump will energize until the wash button is released.

Rear Interval Wiper Control

Modes: OFF, Interval, LOW and WASH.

The GEM responds to the rear wiper control commands by interpreting inputs from the rear wiper mode wash switch. There will be two interval wiper settings to provide the following rear wiper dwell times.

Setting Dwell
1 12 Seconds
2 6 Seconds



The GEM relay drivers control two external relays: rear wiper up relay, and rear wiper down relay. When the washer input on the rear wiper mode/wash switch is activated longer than 300 ms, the wash and wiper functions are provided until the switch is released. The release of the switch will be followed by three low speed wipes. In the OFF position, if the switch is pressed between 100 ms and 300 ms, the wiper system will provide one wipe at low speed with no wash.
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Old 12-27-2003, 05:38 PM
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Chime Warning

There are six audible warning tones and four warning lights that the GEM controls. The GEM performs a prove out on all warning light miniature bulbs (13466) (except the seat belt, 4x4 and door ajar) by turning on the miniature bulb for two seconds after the ignition switch is turned to RUN from START. The warning chimes and lamps are described below.

Tone Request

A single tone will be provided each time a ground signal is received from the message center. A one-second tone will sound for warning indications from the message center. A 100-millisecond tone will sound for each message center button depressed.

Headlamp On Warning

A chime sounds when the exterior lamps are on (parking, license plate and headlamps (13008) ) and:

There is no key in the ignition switch 20 seconds after ignition is turned off.
The driver's front door (20124) is ajar (or open).
Vehicle speed is below 24 km/h (15 mph).
Door Ajar Warning

When at least one door is ajar and the key is in the RUN position, the door ajar cluster lamp is activated and remains on until all doors are closed. A warning tone will sound once any time the key is in the ignition switch and any door is open. The GEM's flexibility allows customizing of different warnings (i.e., a steady tone for a driver's door ajar).

Driver Seat Belt Warning

If the driver's seat belt is unbuckled when the ignition switch is placed in RUN, a chime sounds for 6 seconds (or until the driver's seat belt is buckled) and a warning light is turned on for 61 seconds (or until the driver's seat belt is buckled).

Key In Ignition

Any time the key is in the ignition switch and the driver's door is open, the module sounds a chime (120 chimes per minute) until either the key is removed from the ignition or the driver's door is closed.

Battery Saver

NOTE: The exterior lamps are not part of the battery saver protection, and will remain on even if the GEM turns the interior lamps off.

The battery saver feature removes extended interior lamp power drains to the battery (10655) . The GEM keeps power to these loads for 40 minutes after the ignition switch is moved to OFF.

The GEM will keep power available for all interior lights, key ring lights, cargo lamp, and hood lamp circuits for 40 minutes after the ignition switch is turned off. The battery saver timer is reset by lifting a door handle (receiving an illuminated entry request), activating a door ajar switch, changing the ignition to START, or moving the key to the RUN or ACCY position. No lamp or chime indication is provided.

A WAKE-UP command is sent when:

any door becomes ajar or is opened or closed.
the front door handle is lifted (if equipped with illuminated entry).
the key is inserted or removed.
the ignition switch is turned from OFF to RUN.
the ignition switch is turned from OFF to ACCY.
a wake up request is received from the RAP module.
Courtesy Lamps

The GEM illuminates the interior courtesy lamps when any door is set ajar or is opened. The following are inputs used for controlling the courtesy lamps:

All door ajar switches (including liftgate)
Door handle switches
Illuminated entry request with RAP module
Two-step unlock door disarm switches.
All interior courtesy lamps are turned off when any of the following occurs:

25 seconds have elapsed after all the doors are closed.
The ignition switch is turned to RUN.
Vehicle speed is over 8 km/h (5 mph).
A power door lock command is received before the five seconds have elapsed.
Illuminated Entry

The interior courtesy lamps will be turned on if any front door handle is lifted or if any door is ajar. If the lamps are turned on by lifting the front door handle or by illuminated entry request, the lamps stay on for 25 seconds.

The interior courtesy lamps are turned off when the ignition switch is turned to RUN.

Delayed Accessory

The module provides temporary power to the power windows, the rear wiper (for parking of the rear wiper off the liftgate glass), the power moon roof, and the message center for ten minutes after the ignition switch is moved from the RUN to OFF position. If during this ten-minute period either front door is opened, the delayed accessory relay will be de-energized. If either door is opened during a one-touch operation, the module will wait until the one-touch operation is completed before de-energizing the delayed accessory relay.

One-Touch Window

When the power switch for driver's window control is held down (between 0.04 and 0.4 second) and then released with the ignition switch in RUN or ACC, the driver's window will automatically move to its full down position.

Only the driver's window has this feature. Holding the driver's switch down longer allows the operator to stop the window as soon as the switch is released.

The one-touch window feature can be enabled or disabled by the operator.

Close both front doors .
Key ON.
Key OFF.
Remove key from ignition switch .
Press and hold the down window switch to enable/disable the one-touch window feature.
Reinsert the key into the ignition switch within two seconds after pressing the down window switch.
Continue to hold the switch until a two-second tone is heard.
Release the switch while the tone is active.
After the two-second tone, the following confirmation beep sequences will be heard:
One beep — feature disabled.
Two beeps — feature enabled.
Repeat the procedure again to toggle back and forth.

Two-Step Unlock

Upon receiving a two-step unlock command, the GEM illuminates the courtesy lamps. There is a five-second window that begins from the first transition of the unlock switch. If within that window, a second unlock command is sensed by the GEM, the GEM will energize a relay to unlock all the doors.

Four-Wheel Drive Electronic Shift-on-the-Fly (Ranger)

This feature electronically shifts the vehicle transfer case between 2WD, 4WD, and 4WD LOW. The system mode is selected by the operator through a three-position rotary switch on the instrument panel. The operator is informed which mode the system is in by two cluster indicator lamps, one for 4WD HIGH, and one for 4WD LOW (in 4WD LOW, both lamps are on). The GEM accomplishes shifts between different system modes by interpreting inputs from 4x4 selector switch, the vehicle speed signal, and the transfer case contract plates. Based on these inputs, two relays (L2H and H2L directional control), the transfer case motor, and an output for the transfer case electric clutch, are used to shift into 2WD, 4WD HIGH, or 4WD LOW. The GEM will not allow shifts into 4WD LOW unless the brake is depressed, the vehicle is in NEUTRAL (with automatic transmission vehicles), the clutch is pressed (in manual transmission vehicles), and the speed is less than 5 km/h (3 mph).

Control Trac

This feature electronically shifts the vehicle transfer case between 2WD, automatic 4WD, and 4WD LOW. The system mode is selected by the operator through a three-position rotary switch on the instrument panel. The operator is informed which mode the system is in by two cluster indicator lamps, one for A4WD and one for 4WD LOW. The GEM accomplishes shifts between different system modes by interpreting inputs from the 4x4 selector switch, vehicle speed signal, transfer case rear and front shaft Hall effect speed sensors, and the transfer case contact plates. Based on these inputs, the shifts are controlled through two outputs to the center axle engage and disengage solenoids, two relays (L2H and H2L directional control) to control the transfer case shift motor, and an output for the transfer case electric clutch. While in the automatic four-wheel drive mode, the electric clutch engagement is automatically controlled based on front and rear shaft speed differences (wheel slippage), transferring increased traction to the front wheels. The electric clutch is fully engaged when in the 4WD LOW mode.

A transfer case NEUTRAL capability is also available for vehicle towing needs. This feature will be available and programmed at the dealership. The transfer case can be put in NEUTRAL by placing the transmission in NEUTRAL, the key in the OFF position, and the speed is 0 km/h (0 mph). The transfer case will automatically be shifted out of NEUTRAL if the vehicle ignition switch is moved to RUN or ACCY, or the transmission is moved out of NEUTRAL.
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Old 12-27-2003, 06:07 PM
Donald Rohret Donald Rohret is offline
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Thumbs up

Thanks Ken....Wonderful information....I printed it all out and will file it with my Ranger data. The GEM is truly an amazing device.
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Old 12-27-2003, 09:52 PM
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In regards to towing, simply disconnecting the battery after placing the transmission in neutral is not enough? The GEM must be programmed for transfer case neutral first?
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Old 12-27-2003, 11:25 PM
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Quote:
Originally posted by Donald Rohret
...The GEM is truly an amazing device.
It really is. Think about how many more circuits and/or actuators and/or relays and/or fuses and/or wires your truck would need without it...
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Old 12-28-2003, 04:43 AM
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Holy Cow...
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Old 05-07-2007, 09:55 AM
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GEM questions

Ken--I first want to thank and commend you for compiling and posting all the tremendous information. I use to write technical articles for a motorhome magazine and I know how much work goes into projects like this forum. I have read the GEM thread and I have a few questions.

I would like to tow a 2001 Ranger 4X4 four-wheels down behind my bus. If feasible, I would prefer programming the transfer case to neutral through the GEM module rather than installing a driveshaft disconnect. My local Ford dealer has the two tools listed in the shop manual but does not know anything about this feature. He is willing to let me borrow his equipment or do it for me, but he has never done this before, does not know the procedure, and I can’t find instructions in the Workshop Manual. Can you tell me where to find instructions and what equipment is required? I currently tow a 1994 4X2 B2300 Mazda 4-wheels down. The Ford manual states that towing mileage is unlimited at any speed, however this standard was written when the national speed limit was 55 mph. Do you know of any documentation concerning mileage and speed limitations when towing a 4X4 using the neutral transfer case setting via GEM module?

Again, thanks for your time and a job well-done…………….Ed
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Old 05-07-2007, 06:29 PM
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Good for you Ken!!! Way too much good info to let slip into thread oblivion. Hopefully the moderators will take your posts and transform them into a GEM sticky. This would be an excellent addition to the tech thread at the beginning of the forum

Kudos

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Old 05-09-2007, 11:00 PM
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BOO!! Hi guys.

The Borg-Warner 13-54 Electric Shift Transfer Case provides LOW RANGE driving. This system has no selectable neutral.

In the 4x2 mode, torque from the transmission is transferred to the input shaft assembly, which in turn drives the rear output shaft that drives the rear axle assembly.

The 2W-4W shift is accomplished through the shifting of the lockup collar that engages the drive sprocket on the rear output shaft. The drive sprocket turns the drive chain, which turns the driven sprocket on the front output shaft assembly. The front output shaft assembly then drives the front driveshaft.

The high-low shift is accomplished when the reduction fork assembly moves the reduction hub to engage the complete carrier assembly to the output shaft. Torque from the input shaft assembly is then transmitted through the sun gear, which then turns the complete carrier assembly. The complete carrier assembly, now engaged to the output shaft, provides the reduction.

The unit is lubricated by a gerotor oil pump assembly that pumps the oil through the bore in the rear output shaft.

Hope this helps Ed.


TTDCSB40
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Old 05-09-2007, 11:00 PM
 
 
 
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