|Source: Ford Motor Company|
FORD INTRODUCES ALL-NEW 6.0-LITER POWER STROKE DIESEL
Ford has been the proven diesel leader since we introduced the Power Stroke eight years ago, and we intend to remain the leader. Our customers need the power to get any job done, and that’s exactly what the new powertrain will deliver. Steve Lyons, Ford Division President
Ford’s F-Series Super Duty, the proven leader in the over 8,500-pound truck segment, is setting new standards for 2003 with an all-new optional diesel engine and automatic transmission with class-leading power.
The new 32-valve, 6.0-liter Power Stroke V-8 diesel engine is more powerful and cleaner, achieving approximately 8 percent better fuel economy while satisfying more stringent emissions standards than the well-respected 7.3-liter Power Stroke Diesel it replaces. The new 6.0-liter Power Stroke reduces emission of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) by 20 percent. It also provides customers the power they want with improved noise and vibration refinement.
The new 6.0-liter Power Stroke will be matched with the new five-speed TorqShift® automatic transmission that sets a new benchmark in responsiveness and confidence. TorqShift features a newly designed five-speed gearbox and electronic control system to provide smoother shifts and higher low-gear ratios to help a loaded truck get off the mark smoothly. The transmission’s tow-haul mode helps improve shift control under demanding operating conditions.
Super Duty head of the class in power
The 32-valve 6.0-liter Power Stroke Diesel engine and TorqShift transmission will be available on F-250 through F-550 pickups and chassis cabs, as well as the Ford Excursion. Combined, they produce horsepower of 325 at 3,300 rpm and 560 foot-pounds of torque at 2,000 rpm the best in the over 8,500-pound gross vehicle weight segment.
This combination is very capable loaded or unloaded, with or without a trailer, said David Johnson, F-Series Super Duty vehicle engineering manager. Our testing went beyond how much it pulls to how well it pulls a load. That’s where our engine and transmission work together to surpass the competition.
The new engine, a direct injection, 32-valve diesel V-8 engine with all-new cast-iron block and cylinder heads, employs an Electronic Variable Response Turbocharger (EVRT) that provides optimum boost over the full range of engine operation.
This turbocharger provides a large frame size for better fuel economy, while providing electronically controlled turbine tuning for improved low end boost improvements, said Charlie Freese, chief engineer, diesel engines. This allows the vehicle to achieve launch and performance feel improvements without sacrificing efficiency.
The 6.0-liter Power Stroke introduces a new hydraulic rail fuel injection system to achieve higher injection pressures for clean, efficient combustion, while a cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system helps reduce NOx emissions. The engine also features a cartridge-style oil filter, positioned on top of the engine for easy maintenance. TorqShift transmission features include higher torque capability; a new electronic shift control system that monitors engine, transmission, vehicle speed and driver input to optimize shift performance; and a larger pump to help improve cooling and lubrication.
The powertrain system’s capability is coupled with Ford’s new tow-haul feature, in which a driver pushes a button to change the shift strategy of the transmission. While going uphill, tow-haul mode holds a gear longer before upshifting smoothly to maintain consistent travel without strain. On a downhill grade, a tap on the brake signals tow-haul, which downshifts as appropriate to slow the engine, giving the driver greater control and helping extend brake life.
The engine and transmission were developed together, rather than through a more common approach of adapting one to fit the other.
The engine and transmission have been treated as an integrated system since day one, said Gerard Kuchta, TorqShift manager. Throughout our series of tests, we utilized the most current 6.0-liter Power Stroke engine and TorqShift transmission available to us. The combination of these two approaches ensured that the best powertrain system performance level was achieved.
The 6.0-liter Power Stroke Diesel also is available with a six-speed manual transmission option. The new 2003 model offers a dual mass flywheel for F-250 and F-350 applications. The dual mass flywheel reduces gear noise for added powertrain refinement, said Freese.
Building a better engine
The 6.0-liter Power Stroke V-8 engine is a direct-injection, 32-valve diesel with an all-new cast-iron block and cylinder heads. It employs a single, block-mounted camshaft in a compact overhead valve design for low friction and durability.
Ford engineers knew they needed a strong engine to meet heavy towing needs one that could do a big job with class-leading horsepower yet exhibit smooth, quiet, refined engine characteristics.
One key to achieving this was use of the Electronic Variable Response Turbocharger (EVRT). The strategy we used allowed us to size the turbocharger for fuel efficiency and altitude capability, while achieving better low end response for better launch characteristics, said Charlie Freese, chief diesel engineer. The EVRT avoids less efficient wastegate strategies, which are sometimes used to reduce turbocharger lag.
The 32-valve 6.0-liter Power Stroke V-8 diesel turbocharger is similar to a variable nozzle turbocharger used in some European vehicles. Applying electronic controls to the turbocharger optimizes turbocharger performance for different driving conditions. The turbocharger actuator also takes advantage of the hydraulic systems already on the engine to move the vanes for better efficiency. Tuned to exploit the transmission gear ratios and electronically controlled shift strategies, the vehicle achieves faster acceleration.
When you drive this truck, it accelerates so quickly that you almost feel like you’re driving a car. That’s not typical for a vehicle this large and this capable, said Freese. It’s very enjoyable to drive, loaded or unloaded. Loaded to its maximum gross combined weight rating (GCWR) of 20,000 (F-550 maximum GCWR is 30,000) pounds, the truck performs very well. The maximum engine speed was extended to 4,000 rpm, providing performance feel improvements that enhance the drive experience.
The engine is able to meet federal emissions regulations ahead of schedule in part due to a cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system that helps to reduce NOx emissions by approximately 20 percent.
The EGR system redirects a portion of the exhaust gas through a cooler and reintroduces it into the engine combustion chamber. This recirculated gas helps control the combustion temperature to avoid conditions high temperature and the presence of oxygen that are favorable for formation of NOx. In older systems, measures to reduce NOx formation often relied entirely upon delayed injection timing, which could adversely affect fuel economy. The EGR system allows more flexibility to optimize both emissions and fuel economy.
The engine cooling system employs a larger fan coupled with an engine-mounted stator, a new fan clutch and an onboard computer that controls fan speed for improved cooling capacity and efficiency. When the onboard computer senses warm temperatures, it activates the cooling system, allowing the fan to pull cool air through the charge air cooler, transmission cooler and air-conditioner condenser. The fan is disengaged when it is not needed. In less efficient systems, the fan runs at a fixed ratio regardless of the need for cooling.
This provides a robust cooling package for the truck, supporting operation under the most demanding conditions, while reducing powertrain noise and improving fuel economy, said Freese.
The larger fan is capable of pushing air at 10,500 cubic feet per minute. Its new stator reduces the clearance between the fan tips and shroud and better guides the air motion through the heat exchangers and across the engine compartment to use airflow more efficiently.
You wouldn’t know it by listening
The articulation index, an engineering measure of the ability to carry on a conversation in a moving vehicle, shows F-Series Super Duty with the 6.0-liter Power Stroke and TorqShift transmission at levels comparable to some European luxury cars. In addition to an extensive sealing system in the cabin to help keep out unwanted noise, effort went into making the Power Stroke and TorqShift operate at much quieter levels.
The engine projects a sound that lets you know it’s a tough truck engine, said Freese. That’s something the customer enjoys. But they don’t want it to sound like the engine is straining to do the job.
The engine design includes specific features to help minimize noise, vibration and harshness. A rigid bedplate stiffens the engine block to reduce vibration; the block ribbing structure is designed to reduce vibration and powertrain bending; the pilot injection system is calibrated to reduce idle noise; damped steel covers and oil pans reduce noise transmission; the geartrain is packaged at the rear of the engine to reduce gear noise and crankshaft torsional vibrations; and seals are improved at all points.
Easier to service
New locations for the transmission and engine oil filters yielded a remarkable serviceability improvement. The cartridge-style filters are removed like a laser printer cartridge, avoiding spills during oil changes, said Freese. Glow plugs are accessible without removing rocker covers. Radiator hoses connect to a front-mounted cover, allowing pump removal without breaking the hose connections.
The engine oil filter is located on top of the engine for easy removal and replacement. A cartridge holds the oil during routine maintenance to prevent drips. In conventional configurations, customers have to crawl under the truck to access the oil filter before unscrewing it.
The new Power Stroke diesel is being manufactured by International Engine Group, an operating company of Navistar International Corp., at Navistar’s Indianapolis Engine Plant and at its new plant in Huntsville, Ala.
F-Series Super Duty pickups and chassis cabs equipped with the new optional engine and transmission will begin production this fall at Ford’s Kentucky Truck Plant in Louisville, Ky. They will begin arriving in dealer showrooms in early 2003.