From: owner-small-list-digest ford-trucks.com (small-list-digest)
To: small-list-digest ford-trucks.com
Subject: small-list-digest V3 #226
Reply-To: small-list ford-trucks.com
Sender: owner-small-list-digest ford-trucks.com
Errors-To: owner-small-list-digest ford-trucks.com
Precedence: bulk


small-list-digest Friday, September 3 1999 Volume 03 : Number 226



=======================================================================
Ford Truck Enthusiasts - Ranger, Explorer, Bronco 2 and Aerostar
Visit our web site: http://www.ford-trucks.com/
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
To unsubscribe, send email to:
majordomo ford-trucks.com
with the words "unsubscribe small-list-digest" in the body of the
message.
=======================================================================
In this issue:

FTE Small - re: bad cat (was BII dies)
FTE Small - 84 B2 Shuts off
FTE Small - Radius Arm Bushings
Re: FTE Small - 84 B2 Shuts off
FTE Small - Gibson Exhaust
Re: FTE Small - Radius Arm Bushings
Re: FTE Small - 84 B2 Shuts off
FTE Small - ADMIN: Excursion Press Release
Re: FTE Small - re: bad cat (was BII dies)
Re: FTE Small - Radius Arm Bushings
Re: FTE Small - Radius Arm Bushings
Re: [Re: FTE Small - re: bad cat (was BII dies)]
Re: [Re: FTE Small - 84 B2 Shuts off]
Re: Rover source; was Re: FTE Small - 84 B2 Shuts off]
Re: [Re: FTE Small - 88 Bronco II sporadically dies]
Re: [Re: FTE Small - 4wd auto]
Re: [Re: FTE Small - 4wd auto]
Re: [Re: FTE Small - 4wd auto]
Re: [Re: FTE Small - 4wd auto]

=======================================================================

----------------------------------------------------------------------

Date: Thu, 02 Sep 1999 06:47:49 -0400
From: Dwight Varnes
Subject: FTE Small - re: bad cat (was BII dies)

Just FYI,
When a converter goes bad (clogs up) you'll get a constant loss of
power, poor mileage, but it will usually idle okay. The converter will
clog over time reducing performance but will allow enough passage for
the engine to idle fine. Left go too long, of course, it won't run at
all.
I learned this while working at a Hyundai dealership. This was a very
common failure as the Hyundai chokes would stick shut on the carbs,
causing the engine to run rich, thus clogging the converter (and usually
cracking the exh manifold...what great cars).
- --
"Your SUV is neither sporty nor utilitarian."

Dwight Varnes, insurance appraiser and car nut
1970 124 Spider (restored, mostly)
1986 Audi Coupe GT (bigger engine STILL at machine shop)
1989 VW Jetta GLI 16v (the wife's ride, tired but loyal)
1984 Nissan 4x4 Pickup (SOLD! WOOHOO! Shopping for a Ranger!)
1965 Buick Skylark conv. (unrestored, for sale)
== FTE: Uns*bscribe and posting info http://www.ford-trucks.com/faq.html

------------------------------

Date: Wed, 1 Sep 1999 21:27:15 -0400
From: Tom Kirkbride
Subject: FTE Small - 84 B2 Shuts off

My 84 B2 2.8 V6 4X4 shuts off sometimes when I hit a bump (i.e railroad
tracks) at 40 mph. It hasnt done it at any slow speeds, but its annoying
to have to pull over on the side of the road and restart it. The engine
runs great otherwise and never just shuts off while driving on smooth
surfaces. I have no idea why its doing this. Any ideas?
___________________________________________________________________
Get the Internet just the way you want it.
Free software, free e-mail, and free Internet access for a month!
Try Juno Web: http://www.ford-trucks.com//lc/lc.php?action=do&link=http://dl.www.juno.com/dynoget/tagj.
== FTE: Uns*bscribe and posting info http://www.ford-trucks.com/faq.html

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 2 Sep 1999 06:29:32 -0600
From: "Mary McMahon"
Subject: FTE Small - Radius Arm Bushings

It's time to replace the radius arm bushings in my 92 Explorer, I remember
reading somewhere that it was important to get the right bushings or you may
be doing the job again in a few years. Does anyone have any recommendations
on which bushings/where to buy? My husband will be doing this job himself
so any tips on this procedure would also be appreciated. Thanks! Mary

== FTE: Uns*bscribe and posting info http://www.ford-trucks.com/faq.html

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 2 Sep 1999 13:37:50 +0100
From: "Neil Brownlee"
Subject: Re: FTE Small - 84 B2 Shuts off

My 1981 Land Rover Stage One 3.5Litre V8 does the same....what is it? I've
tied everywhere to find out...btw, the 3.5 V8 has no computer....

Neil

Explorer owner extrodinaire!

- ----- Original Message -----
From: Tom Kirkbride
To:
Sent: Thursday, September 02, 1999 2:27 AM
Subject: FTE Small - 84 B2 Shuts off


> My 84 B2 2.8 V6 4X4 shuts off sometimes when I hit a bump (i.e railroad
> tracks) at 40 mph. It hasnt done it at any slow speeds, but its annoying
> to have to pull over on the side of the road and restart it. The engine
> runs great otherwise and never just shuts off while driving on smooth
> surfaces. I have no idea why its doing this. Any ideas?
> ___________________________________________________________________
> Get the Internet just the way you want it.
> Free software, free e-mail, and free Internet access for a month!
> Try Juno Web: http://www.ford-trucks.com//lc/lc.php?action=do&link=http://dl.www.juno.com/dynoget/tagj.
> == FTE: Uns*bscribe and posting info http://www.ford-trucks.com/faq.html
>

== FTE: Uns*bscribe and posting info http://www.ford-trucks.com/faq.html

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 2 Sep 1999 10:11:51 -0700
From: "Hans Luckoff"
Subject: FTE Small - Gibson Exhaust

I am thinking of installing a Gibson exhaust system on my 99 Ranger 3.0 Does
anyone have any experience or know anything about this system. TIA Hans

== FTE: Uns*bscribe and posting info http://www.ford-trucks.com/faq.html

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 2 Sep 1999 13:59:55 -0700
From: "Kenneth St.John"
Subject: Re: FTE Small - Radius Arm Bushings

I used polyurethane bushings when I replaced mine. If you do the same, make
sure you use polyurethane grease where the bushings come in contact with the
metal.
Ken
- -----Original Message-----
From: Mary McMahon
To: small-list ford-trucks.com
Date: Thursday, September 02, 1999 5:42 AM
Subject: FTE Small - Radius Arm Bushings


> It's time to replace the radius arm bushings in my 92 Explorer, I remember
>reading somewhere that it was important to get the right bushings or you
may
>be doing the job again in a few years. Does anyone have any
recommendations
>on which bushings/where to buy? My husband will be doing this job himself
>so any tips on this procedure would also be appreciated. Thanks! Mary
>
>== FTE: Uns*bscribe and posting info http://www.ford-trucks.com/faq.html
>

== FTE: Uns*bscribe and posting info http://www.ford-trucks.com/faq.html

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 2 Sep 1999 14:05:49 -0700
From: "Kenneth St.John"
Subject: Re: FTE Small - 84 B2 Shuts off

My engine would run really rough when I drove over rough bumps but was fine
on smooth roads. I found out that the MAF sensor was sliding on/off. Ford
told me that they have a more secure clip but it involves cutting the old
wire harness and splicing the new harness into the existing wiring. I just
used a small wire tie down strap to keep the connection secure.
I'm not sure if this is your problem but I would definitely check for some
wiring that might be loose.
Ken
- -----Original Message-----
From: Tom Kirkbride
To: small-list ford-trucks.com
Date: Thursday, September 02, 1999 4:24 AM
Subject: FTE Small - 84 B2 Shuts off


>My 84 B2 2.8 V6 4X4 shuts off sometimes when I hit a bump (i.e railroad
>tracks) at 40 mph. It hasnt done it at any slow speeds, but its annoying
>to have to pull over on the side of the road and restart it. The engine
>runs great otherwise and never just shuts off while driving on smooth
>surfaces. I have no idea why its doing this. Any ideas?
>___________________________________________________________________
>Get the Internet just the way you want it.
>Free software, free e-mail, and free Internet access for a month!
>Try Juno Web: http://www.ford-trucks.com//lc/lc.php?action=do&link=http://dl.www.juno.com/dynoget/tagj.
>== FTE: Uns*bscribe and posting info http://www.ford-trucks.com/faq.html
>

== FTE: Uns*bscribe and posting info http://www.ford-trucks.com/faq.html

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 02 Sep 1999 16:04:00 -0400
From: kpayne ford-trucks.com
Subject: FTE Small - ADMIN: Excursion Press Release

The news section of the web site now contains Ford press
releases for the 2000 Excursion. This is a series of
several articles plus photos. Everything you always
wanted to know about Excursions but were afraid to ask!

Ken Payne
Admin
== FTE: Uns*bscribe and posting info http://www.ford-trucks.com/faq.html

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 2 Sep 1999 16:21:53 EDT
From: ROlson1039 aol.com
Subject: Re: FTE Small - re: bad cat (was BII dies)

ys this is true but usually youll have a tremendous loss of power, the heat
will be terrible and you can actually see the catalyctic and manifold glow
bright red.... the Hyundais had two catalyctics, and quite frankly the cars
were of a poor design.. the one that was part of the engine pipe used to go
quite often
Bob
ROLson1039 aol.com
99 Ranger XLT 2WD
== FTE: Uns*bscribe and posting info http://www.ford-trucks.com/faq.html

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 2 Sep 1999 16:23:48 EDT
From: ROlson1039 aol.com
Subject: Re: FTE Small - Radius Arm Bushings

When in doubt.. go to the Ford dealer.. they have the original equipment how
much more right could ya want???
Bob
99 Ranger XLT
Rolson1039 aol.com
== FTE: Uns*bscribe and posting info http://www.ford-trucks.com/faq.html

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 2 Sep 1999 19:08:06 EDT
From: WCirbus aol.com
Subject: Re: FTE Small - Radius Arm Bushings

On Ford's , there is a right and a left bushing. You will need to drill out
the rivets unless someone already did . It's a simple job after you get the
rivets out. RLC
== FTE: Uns*bscribe and posting info http://www.ford-trucks.com/faq.html

------------------------------

Date: 2 Sep 99 21:01:46 EDT
From: Tim Turner
Subject: Re: [Re: FTE Small - re: bad cat (was BII dies)]

ROlson1039 aol.com wrote:
> yes this is true but usually youll have a tremendous loss of power, th=
e =

heat will be terrible and you can actually see the catalyctic and manifol=
d
glow bright red.... =


Unless of course the substrate is breaking up and on occasion plugs the
exhaust. I've seen a vehicle go from 0 PSI back pressure to over 25 (and=
blew
the hose off of the guage!)

Tim

____________________________________________________________________
Get your own FREE, personal Netscape WebMail account today at http://www.ford-trucks.com//lc/lc.php?action=do&link=http://webm=
ail.netscape.com.
== FTE: Uns*bscribe and posting info http://www.ford-trucks.com/faq.html

------------------------------

Date: 2 Sep 99 21:29:41 EDT
From: Tim Turner
Subject: Re: [Re: FTE Small - 84 B2 Shuts off]

"Kenneth St.John" wrote:

> My engine would run really rough when I drove over rough bumps but was =
fine
on smooth roads. I found out that the MAF sensor was sliding on/off. Fo=
rd
told me that they have a more secure clip but it involves cutting the old=
wire
harness and splicing the new harness into the existing wiring. I just us=
ed a
small wire tie down strap to keep the connection secure. I'm not sure if=
this
is your problem but I would definitely check for some wiring that might b=
e
loose.

Good point; Fords are certainly known for odd wiring problems. :-) The =
84 &
85 B-IIs had carbureted 2.8s so there's no MAF, but it's good to know abo=
ut
the problem on the newer ones! The connector to the EEC-IV ignition modu=
le is
known to give problems also; NAPA usually has it in stock if the local d=
ealer
doesn't, but it's also a hack off and rewire deal. ( I always solder and=
heat
shrink, but I've seen plenty that were just plain butt connectors .)=



-----OriginMessage-----From: Tom Kirkbride

> My 84 B2 2.8 V6 4X4 shuts off sometimes when I hit a bump (i.e railroad=

tracks) at 40 mph. =


just how big a bump are talking about? I know tracks I wouldnt want to c=
ross
at 40! If it's a pretty severe jolt it could be carb related, try a litt=
le
off road work and see if you get the same result.

> It hasnt done it at any slow speeds, but its annoying to have to pull o=
ver
on the side of the road and restart it.

How does it restart? Do you have to floor the gas or any other abnormal
measures or does it just fire right back up normally? This could give so=
me
helpful clues.

WHOOPS!! just thought of something; got a lot of keys on your key ring? =
My
85 B-II had a bad habit of knocking off when in the really bumpy stuff wh=
en I
first got it a few years ago; try moving the key forward just a bit at t=
he
moment it dies and see if it refires. (or holding the key as you cross th=
e
bump) In my case it was more the ignition switch that was the problem, b=
ut a
hefty ring of keys made the problem more noticeable. Given the age and t=
he
noted problems with ignition switches of that era it might not hurt to re=
place
it regardless.

> The engine runs great otherwise and never just shuts off while driving=
on
smooth surfaces. I have no idea why its doing this. Any ideas?

Just the above for the moment, but keep us posted with further informatio=
n and
I'm sure it can be solved. :-)

Tim

____________________________________________________________________
Get your own FREE, personal Netscape WebMail account today at http://www.ford-trucks.com//lc/lc.php?action=do&link=http://webm=
ail.netscape.com.
== FTE: Uns*bscribe and posting info http://www.ford-trucks.com/faq.html

------------------------------

Date: 2 Sep 99 21:13:11 EDT
From: Tim Turner
Subject: Re: Rover source; was Re: FTE Small - 84 B2 Shuts off]

"Neil Brownlee" wrote:

> My 1981 Land Rover Stage One 3.5Litre V8 does the same....what is it? =


Try e-mailing the good folks at http://www.ford-trucks.com//lc/lc.php?action=do&link=http://flyingcircuscars.com (the site add=
ress,
you'll have to go there to do the e-mail). Arguably one of the best plac=
es in
the SE USA for knowledge on the British machinery and easy to spend hours=
on
the site for those with a taste for fine machinery of the last 50 years.

I love my B-II, but if there's one machine that could woo me away it woul=
d be
a '90s Rover. (Of course I'd need a pay raise so I could afford to have
someone ELSE work on it...) ;-)

Tim


____________________________________________________________________
Get your own FREE, personal Netscape WebMail account today at http://www.ford-trucks.com//lc/lc.php?action=do&link=http://webm=
ail.netscape.com.
== FTE: Uns*bscribe and posting info http://www.ford-trucks.com/faq.html

------------------------------

Date: 2 Sep 99 22:36:26 EDT
From: Tim Turner
Subject: Re: [Re: FTE Small - 88 Bronco II sporadically dies]

"Wayne Signs" wrote:
> Okay, I heard back from the dealership. They are saying it may be the
Ignition Module


Most likely, but still hard to be *sure*, it's good form to replace the
distributor at the same time as if the pick-up inside is failing it may b=
urn
up the new module in a few weeks.

> (better answer than ENGINE)

MUCH better, but I still dont know how they came up with that diagnosis!

> I will replace a ignition module myself, first

Not hard to do, the bolts involved are 5.5MM head (7/32" will work), depe=
nding
on the thickness of your socket you might neet to grind (file?) the botto=
m
1/2" or so to a smaller overall diameter to get inside the hole s of the
module.

> (can you believe he quoted $300 parts/labor to replace this???).

Since they wanted to shotgun an engine at it... yeah. At my shop you cou=
ld
have the module, distributor, and some routine services done for that wit=
h
change left over from that $300. (Of course my area has the lowest
regional labor rates but even at $100/Hr it sounds pretty high; at the $=
44 we
charge I'm umm.. wondering.)

> bought my BII a week ago with the intentions of fixing everything so it=

would be a very reliable vehicle.

I hope you enjoy it as much as I do mine. :-)

> continue today, but the service manager's first comment was "It needs a=
new
motor, because it has too much blow by". This vehicle has 78,000 miles a=
nd
the engine sounds GREAT! =


Time to find a better place to go. Service writers dont need to make mor=
e
than a *very* prelim. diagnosis of the situation and certainly not one of=
that
magnitude. Remember.. if he was that good at diagnostics he'd be *IN* th=
e
shop rather than greeting you. (Barring of course cases where good tech'=
s
became disabled by flying fans, falling engines or any of the myriad of
hazards faced every day in the shop and is now doing the selling instead=
of
the wrenching.
with
awsome flames and open fuel lines, then after that's all done another sta=
rts
*in gear* on the alignment lift.. No real damage to anything, but just li=
ke
having a lift fall onto the safety latch it makes me think about selling =
all
$15-20K of my equipment and do something else.>) But I digress; forgive =
me. =

:-)

> I am not buying the "New Motor" story. =


Nor am I!

> I was expecting one of the following: EGR, O2 Sensor, Catalytic convert=
er. =


Add fuel pump, FP or main relay, EEC-IV computer itself and any of the ot=
her
sensors not mentioned so far; but agreed that the ignition module is like=
ly. =

The Ignition coil itself is possible, but I've probably replaced 75 modul=
es
for every Ford TFI Ign. coil I've seen bad. (Good odds!) ;-)

> Not "New Motor". Anybody have any ideas of what the problem may be fro=
m
experience? =


I've shared thoughts from 14 years of doing diagnostics; if possible woul=
d the
technician involved tell you the codes he retrieved during testing? Off =
the
top of my head I'd say that if 14 &/or 18 (? might be faulty memory on th=
e 18,
possibly 21/24?) were involved the TFI (ignition) would be the first plac=
e to
look. Main words to look for in the code definitions would be SPOUT or P=
IP
erratic. (PIP being the signal from the pick up in the distributor and S=
POUT
being the modified signal sent to the dizzy from the computer.)

Thanks!!

Hope this helps! Sorry for the length.

Tim

____________________________________________________________________
Get your own FREE, personal Netscape WebMail account today at http://www.ford-trucks.com//lc/lc.php?action=do&link=http://webm=
ail.netscape.com.
== FTE: Uns*bscribe and posting info http://www.ford-trucks.com/faq.html

------------------------------

Date: 2 Sep 99 23:02:38 EDT
From: Tim Turner
Subject: Re: [Re: FTE Small - 4wd auto]

Mike Harms wrote:
> Back before I even had a license, I used to live the driving experience=

through those guys at C&D. At the time, that Magazine gave me the most o=
f
what I wanted. =


Aint nostalgia great? ;-)

> Is there a good 4x4 or Truck magazine out there that I should be readin=
g?

I'll get an occasional 'Pertersons 4WD & Off Road'.

> Most I have seen are too preoccupied by either 12" lifts,

Wow! I could put 40s on the B-II. ;-) (But without a 428 CJ to drop in=
it
I'll pass.)

> or lowered suspensions, =


.. trucks should go UP not down. The real point of lowering was f=
or
better handling on sports cars and trucks certainly dont fill that bill. =

(Dont hate me auto-cross bretheren, just my off roading POV!) :-)

and 350 V8's. =


.. Keep the damn GM garbage in the GM stuff and stop stin=
king
up perfectly good vehicles with 'em. The small block Ford is narrower an=
d
easier to stuff in there than the GM. I *HATE* seeing a nice old Ford
repowered with a C$&(y.

Tim

____________________________________________________________________
Get your own FREE, personal Netscape WebMail account today at http://www.ford-trucks.com//lc/lc.php?action=do&link=http://webm=
ail.netscape.com.
== FTE: Uns*bscribe and posting info http://www.ford-trucks.com/faq.html

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 2 Sep 1999 23:30:48 -0400
From: "Ron,Marge,Ted"
Subject: Re: [Re: FTE Small - 4wd auto]

- ----- Original Message -----
From: Tim Turner
To:
Sent: Thursday, September 02, 1999 11:02 PM
Subject: Re: [Re: FTE Small - 4wd auto]
> and 350 V8's.
>
> .. Keep the damn GM garbage in the GM stuff and stop
stinking
> up perfectly good vehicles with 'em. The small block Ford is narrower and
> easier to stuff in there than the GM. I *HATE* seeing a nice old Ford
> repowered with a C$&(y.
>
> Tim
I totally agree Tim. Nothing worse than looking under the hood of a
beautiful Ford and seeing a Chevy sitting there!! If ya want Chevy powered
vehicles then keep it in a Chev.
Ron

== FTE: Uns*bscribe and posting info http://www.ford-trucks.com/faq.html

------------------------------

Date: 3 Sep 99 00:01:05 EDT
From: Tim Turner
Subject: Re: [Re: FTE Small - 4wd auto]

Mike Harms wrote:

> And thus the myth continues... Rather than continue the discussion, I'l=
l
leave it as the physical reality of traction, and the "common
sense"expectation of traction rarely meet. =


Nicely said!

For an interesting (and time consuming) experiment get the 'Playstation' =
game
'Gran Turismo' and READ the manuals concerning weight transfer et al and =
then
play it for quite a few hours. Oddly enough I can wax the competition wi=
th a
highly prepped FWD car (Full race Del Sol for those that have the game), =
but I
suck with the RWD cars. After having had some 'real' Auto cross schoolin=
g
from a local club some years ago I'm still unsure of exactly what I'm doi=
ng
wrong with the RWDs, but the FWDs are slot machines when handled properly=
=2E

> In the end it usually is just a disagreement based only in semantics.

Or usually preference or teaching. I hate it for the law enforcement peo=
ple
with the near death of RWD vehicles. It's either switch to RWD trucks or=

re-train each and every officer on the differences and hope that old habi=
ts
are re-learned correctly.

> If I remember correctly, what brought about the column subject was an
accident that one of the staffers had in a Audi Quattro vehicle with ABS =
and
the analysis of how a so called driving "expert" could have such an accid=
ent
occur.


'Accident' is a misnomer to begin with; the only true accidents involve
mechanical breakdown at the worst time. (Brake failure etc.) Most collis=
ions
have someone at fault, but usually the other person plays some part as we=
ll. =

As an example this morning I was zooming to work (at the limit) and notic=
ed a
F-150 close to the shoulder and slow moving.. OK, probably a tourist keep=
an
eye on him. Moves into the slow lane at maybe 10 MPH.. fine.. OOPs. a b=
obble
into my lane.. OK back into his. Lets get past this dude (I'm still goin=
g
just the speed limit; want to get past him though), OH CRAP!!! He just
veered into *MY* lane and I've been so busy watching him I dont know if I=
'm
clear in the slow lane!!!! This is going to be close..... Thank goodnes=
s I
was in the Capri, the B-II never would have slowed in time to avoid damag=
ing 2
Fords. In a small way my fault as I wasn't keeping an eye on escape rout=
es,
but yet I was aware of what was developing and had (just!) enough time to=

react. (3 Feet at best on the near hit..) Now put in the average idiot =
with
the seat reclined and the radio blasting and *BOOM* you've got a major
collision.

Accident my butt.. failure to pay attention is more like it. Contrast th=
is
story to what happened to a co-worker on HIS way to work the same morning=
=2E
Routine stop light and the brake pedal suddenly falls; *lightly* bumps a =
Lexus
with the Gold trim package. Looks like the owner surveys the scene and s=
ees
no damage and is inclined to let Rodney go on his way to work. Unfortuna=
tely
he (Rodney) says "Oh my God I'm sorry, my brakes failed and I bumped you"=
=2E.. =

Immediately the cell phone comes out and there's calls to the police, EMS=
and
lawyer.. (Rodney never can keep his mouth shut..) I know this is too mu=
ch to
ask y'all to believe but the 4th technician at the shop also had problems=
this
morning.. After waiting 2 hours for the tow truck he drove the extended =
cab,
LWB Duallie 454 Chebbie the rest of the way to the shop with NO power to =
the
brakes or steering (Stupid Hydro-boost GM set-up.. a P/S leak kills the =
brake
boost also.)

Tim


....


To access the rest of this feature you must be a logged in Registered User Of Ford Truck Enthusiasts

Registration is free, easy and gives you access to more features.
If you are not registered, click here to register.
If you are already registered, you can login here.

If you are already logged in and are seeing this message, your web browser is blocking session cookies. Change your browser cookie settings to allow session cookies.




Advertising - Terms of Use - Privacy Policy - Jobs

This forum is owned and operated by Internet Brands, Inc., a Delaware corporation. It is not authorized or endorsed by the Ford Motor Company and is not affiliated with the Ford Motor Company or its related companies in any way. Ford is a registered trademark of the Ford Motor Company.