small-list-digest Saturday, January 9 1999 Volume 03 : Number 004



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Ford Truck Enthusiasts - Ranger, Explorer, Bronco 2 and Aerostar
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In this issue:

Re: FTE Small - Your stereo and my ears-MY OPNION
Re: FTE Small - Your stereo and my ears
Re: FTE Small - Your stereo and my ears
FTE Small - Re: pulse vacuum 4X4 engagement
FTE Small - R-12 Freon
RE: FTE Small - pulse vacuum 4X4 engagement
RE: FTE Small - CD vs. Tape
RE: FTE Small - Speakers, etc.
Re: FTE Small - R-12 Freon
RE: FTE Small - Buying Advice for Ranger
RE: FTE Small - tig welder
Re: FTE Small - R-12 Freon
Re: FTE Small - R-12 Freon
FTE Small - Transmission problems
FTE Small - Re: Freon In the ionosphere
FTE Small - Re: Pulse vacuum 4X4 engagement
Re: FTE Small - Your stereo and my ears
Re: FTE Small - Aerostar Heater Core: '92
FTE Small - radio display out
Re: FTE Small - 02 sensor
Re: FTE Small - radio display out

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Date: Fri, 08 Jan 1999 07:16:33 -0500
From: Scotty Dixon MDX
Subject: Re: FTE Small - Your stereo and my ears-MY OPNION

Richard,
I respect your opnion however it is only an opnion a lot of people do not turn up their system
to disturb anyone we mostly have them for the car shows which a lot of people attend
as far as you and your problem with the loud stereo's around your house call the police
but we all are not like that. And like a police officer told me its better than driving to fast. Mine almost only gets switched on at the car shows or events such as this
But... Every now and then someone we ride by with a loud one and the male in me wants to out do them which most of the time it is not hard to do

I am working on getting some pic of it to be posted soon...
Thanks
Scotty
97 Supercab

>>> Richard 01/07 11:43 PM >>>
Jim, "FrdRngrLvr AOL.COM" wrote:
> Subject: Re: FTE Small - Speakers, etc.
>
> Yeah but there is nothing wrong with a nice low hitting, back sahking system,
> aslong as it is not played obnixiously. For instance my system never gets
> turned up after 9pm so nobody has to hear/feel me go by when they are trying
> to sleep..

Jim, I want you and many others with high-powered systems to get the
point: if I'm in my house and I hear your stereo at _any time of day or
night_ you are disturbing the peace inside my house. When I am
listening to quiet music in my living room and you go by with your
system turned up, you destroy my experience within the privacy of my own
home. This is intolerable. If I can hear your stereo, even quietly, I
assure you that it is obnoxious.

It is also against the law in California if your stereo is audible fifty
feet from your vehicle. There is a reason for this law. People deserve
to be left alone. This includes sound.

Richard


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Date: Fri, 8 Jan 1999 06:54:25 -0000
From: "John Becker"
Subject: Re: FTE Small - Your stereo and my ears

- ----------
> From: Richard
> To: small-list ford-trucks.com
> Subject: FTE Small - Your stereo and my ears
> Date: Friday, January 08, 1999 4:43 AM
>
> Jim, "FrdRngrLvr AOL.COM" wrote:
> > Subject: Re: FTE Small - Speakers, etc.
> >
> > Yeah but there is nothing wrong with a nice low hitting, back sahking
system,
> > aslong as it is not played obnixiously. For instance my system never
gets
> > turned up after 9pm so nobody has to hear/feel me go by when they are
trying
> > to sleep..
>
> Jim, I want you and many others with high-powered systems to get the
> point: if I'm in my house and I hear your stereo at _any time of day or
> night_ you are disturbing the peace inside my house. When I am
> listening to quiet music in my living room and you go by with your
> system turned up, you destroy my experience within the privacy of my own
> home. This is intolerable. If I can hear your stereo, even quietly, I
> assure you that it is obnoxious.
>
> It is also against the law in California if your stereo is audible fifty
> feet from your vehicle. There is a reason for this law. People deserve
> to be left alone. This includes sound.

this is becoming the case in many many cites People with these
hi powered system just dont give a damn till it cost them $75.00 first time


> Richard
>
>
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Date: Fri, 08 Jan 1999 08:11:41 -0500
From: Scotty Dixon MDX
Subject: Re: FTE Small - Your stereo and my ears

A Friend of mine has got a ticket of the loud stereo it costedhim
$370.52 2nd ticket

>>> "John Becker" 01/08 1:54 AM >>>


- ----------
> From: Richard
> To: small-list ford-trucks.com
> Subject: FTE Small - Your stereo and my ears
> Date: Friday, January 08, 1999 4:43 AM
>
> Jim, "FrdRngrLvr AOL.COM" wrote:
> > Subject: Re: FTE Small - Speakers, etc.
> >
> > Yeah but there is nothing wrong with a nice low hitting, back sahking
system,
> > aslong as it is not played obnixiously. For instance my system never
gets
> > turned up after 9pm so nobody has to hear/feel me go by when they are
trying
> > to sleep..
>
> Jim, I want you and many others with high-powered systems to get the
> point: if I'm in my house and I hear your stereo at _any time of day or
> night_ you are disturbing the peace inside my house. When I am
> listening to quiet music in my living room and you go by with your
> system turned up, you destroy my experience within the privacy of my own
> home. This is intolerable. If I can hear your stereo, even quietly, I
> assure you that it is obnoxious.
>
> It is also against the law in California if your stereo is audible fifty
> feet from your vehicle. There is a reason for this law. People deserve
> to be left alone. This includes sound.

this is becoming the case in many many cites People with these
hi powered system just dont give a damn till it cost them $75.00 first time


> Richard
>
>
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Date: Fri, 8 Jan 1999 07:28:26 -0600
From: Philip Crooke
Subject: FTE Small - Re: pulse vacuum 4X4 engagement


availability of manual shift transfer case/manual hubs on new Rangers.
Most said it was not available...but one dealer insisted it was (via
phone). Went down to that dealer and to confirm and again they said no
problem. Still other dealers said "no-way". Go to order it and shure
enuff, the dealer who said it was available now back peddles and says they
were wrong. Anyway, they're all pushing this vaccum shift as the greatest
thing since sliced bread, though no-one can seem to explain exactly how it
works. (Obviously some sort of vacuum source and from what I've read
there's a vacuum canister that's suppose to hold enough vacuum to engage
the system for 36 hours).

Anyone know how the rest of the system works.....>>


The transfer case is controlled electrically through the computer. The
hubs are vaccum controlled (there are vacuum lines that run to each hub)
and the vacuum is controlled by a device (solenoid?) that is also
controlled by the computer. The hub is actually vacuum tight and when you
do any work with the hubs, wheel bearings, the system should be tested for
leakage. When in 4WD, I believe that the hubs are engaged both forward and
backward. This would be an improvement over the old system. Also, you
don't have to backup to disengage the hubs. However, the disengagement is
not immediate--it can take up to 15 seconds after the switch is moved from
4WD High to 2WD High. It probably isn't advisable to switch to 2WD and then
immediately shut the engine off. I had trouble with my hubs when the 1998
Ranger was new (the hubs were not disengaging even thought the truck was
in 2WD) and the dealer replaced both hubs. They seem to work very nicely
now (making sure to give the system sufficient time to make the changes).
The engagement from 2WD High to 4WD High is quiet and the same in the other
direction. To go from 4WD High to 4WD Low requires that the truck is
stopped and in neutral. I do hear a thump from under the truck in this
operation. I guess that it is normal since the transfer case is actually
changing gears.

--PC



_________________________________________________________________________
| Philip S. Crooke Department of Mathematics |
| Professor of Mathematics Mathematics Building, Room 1515 |
| Professor of Education Nashville, TN 37240-0001 |
| (Peabody College) |
| Telephone: 615-322-6671 Fax: 615-343-0215 |
| WWW: http://www.ford-trucks.com//lc/lc.php?action=do&link=http://math.vanderbilt.edu/~pscrooke/index.shtml
|
|________________________________________________________________________|



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Date: Fri, 08 Jan 1999 08:38:50 -0500
From: Ray Shaw
Subject: FTE Small - R-12 Freon

Hi,
somebody mentioned how much he had to pay for some R-12, it got me to
thinking. I have 4 (12oz.) cans in my garage that I do not need. I was
saving for my BII, but an A/C man owed me a favor (I upgraded his wife's
computer out of spare parts for free) and instead of just repairing my
A/C he converted it to R-134a. Anybody have any suggestions as to what I
should do with them?
Ray
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------------------------------

Date: Fri, 8 Jan 1999 08:50:27 -0500
From: Burnett
Subject: RE: FTE Small - pulse vacuum 4X4 engagement

Tim Turner wrote:
>
> unfortunately this can take 10 Ft to happen.. (The usual reason newby's
> get stuck.. if you're spinning it's too late to engage AUTO hubs..
> manual hubs would get you out though.)

Tim, is this true? I've always thought so, but I've been lucky enough not
to have to find out. However a number of owners have said that if you do
get stuck while in 2WD, you just push the 4WD button and slowly apply power
until you start to spin the rear wheels. After a few seconds the front hubs
will lock. I guess which scenario is true depends on whether the hubs lock
when the axle turns or if the wheels have to also turn, but I have no idea
how these things work?

Burnett
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Date: Fri, 8 Jan 1999 09:20:44 -0500
From: Burnett
Subject: RE: FTE Small - CD vs. Tape

Richard wrote:
>
> 1. Almost all tape car stereos....
> 2. Virtually all commercial music tapes are Dolby-encoded.
> 3. Playing a Dolby tape on a non-Dolby ....
> 4. Similarly, the sound will be mis-equalized....
> 5. On most car stereo systems, regardless of price, tapes....
> 6. Tape quality has improved.....

Seems like an awful lot to deal with just to listen to music. Why not just
buy a good CD system? Sounds good in your car, sounds good in my car,
sounds good in my neighbors car, etc.

> listening to rock music in a truck cab and you can hear the hiss, either
> the system is the typical mismatch job, or something else is wrong.

Or maybe you're just on one of the quiet sections between tracks, which is
when I thought the hiss was most audible anyway!! Yes my Dolby-C and bias
switch equipped car tape deck has audible hiss. Hiss and background noise
are areas where CD easily outperforms tape and without a lot of complicated
tuning and calibrating on the part of the listener. I admit that I
sometimes miss the days when I had to match tapes to the deck and take the
deck in for realignment periodically. Hey, and who doesn't remember the
heated arguments over TDK vs. Maxell vs. Brand X tape? Good audio equipment
just doesn't allow you to be involved anymore;-)

Burnett
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Date: Fri, 8 Jan 1999 09:27:35 -0500
From: Burnett
Subject: RE: FTE Small - Speakers, etc.

Richard wrote:
> >
> > What you're hearing is probably "under-damped" and not "over-amped."
>
> No. Regardless of whether the sound is distorted or not, loud is loud.

The point was - a good sub-woofer driver in a proper box can handle the
power from most any car amp available - whether or not your ears (and body)
can live with the results.

I have heard horrible distortion from systems that weren't very loud, and
to me this was maybe more annoying than a loud clean system. Combine them
both - loud and distorted - and I'll grab my shotgun!

My high-end system with 8" subs in a proper enclosure with 100w/ch amp will
subjectively play as loudly as my younger brother's lower quality 12's in a
crappy box with a 125w/ch. amp. Either system can "massage your scalp!"
Yes, this is loud enough to annoy you!! However, the 8's have a more
uniform response and are almost impossible to provoke into mis-behaving.
The 12's will rattle and be raspy even before they reach max. volume. (I
suspect the 12's could be improved with a better box and that they would
ultimately produce higher SPLs.)

So I suggest saving some space, installation aggravation and maybe money by
using a pair of 8's with a good, proper enclosure. Even 6" mid-bass drivers
might suffice, but I would absolutely use something to supplement the bass
available from coax's or separates. It's still personal preference, but 12"
and larger subs are probably better suited to competition systems. If a
pair of 8's (or 6's) don't satisfy you, two pairs (yes 4!!) might - while
taking up less space than a pair of 12's.

You could drive a pair with a good 2 channel amp. If you add a second pair,
wire them in parallel to take advantage of the amp's low impedance drive
capability - but be SURE the amp is designed for this. It's almost like
adding a second amp with the same power rating!! And yes, car amps are
different from their home bound brothers in design. Many are rated for 1-2
ohm loads.

> Concert-hall levels are usually undesirable for musical enjoyment. The
> job of a skilled recording session manager, producer, or engineer is to
> create the most enjoyable experience in a home, which is not a concert
> hall.

No offense, but I disagree. As a one time amateur musician, I prefer
concert-hall levels. Or louder! Out of consideration for others, there are
not many times when I can accomplish this. But when I can, I DO!!

How can a recording engineer account for the acoustic properties of my
stereo, listening environment and personal tastes? My opinion is that the
engineer should capture the subtlety and power of the music with as much
clarity and accuracy as possible. In other words, exploit the capabilities
of the CD. It's then left to my tastes and budget to recreate the music to
my liking - whether I'd like to be 'on stage' or I'd like to hear an
orchestra from the back of the symphony hall - all in my favorite 4 wheel
conveyance.

The issue of close-miked vs. minimalist vs. what-ever-else recording
techniques is a whole different subject. I have heard excellent, and
horrible, recordings made with each.

I hope others have found this as entertaining, and possibly informative, as
I have!

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Date: Fri, 8 Jan 1999 09:46:19 -0500
From: "Robert Leifer"
Subject: Re: FTE Small - R-12 Freon

Freon 12 has a value of somewhere around 15 dollars a pound, now that it is
out of manufacture. you can probably sell them for a lot less to a gas
station who does AC repairs. maybe 10 bucks a can. Last time I purchased
R-12, when it was still legally available, I paid 210 dollars for a 30 pound
container of it. (about 2 or 3 years ago)

Bob
- ----- Original Message -----
From: Ray Shaw
To: Bronco II
Sent: Friday, January 08, 1999 8:38 AM
Subject: FTE Small - R-12 Freon


>Hi,
> somebody mentioned how much he had to pay for some R-12, it got me to
>thinking. I have 4 (12oz.) cans in my garage that I do not need. I was
>saving for my BII, but an A/C man owed me a favor (I upgraded his wife's
>computer out of spare parts for free) and instead of just repairing my
>A/C he converted it to R-134a. Anybody have any suggestions as to what I
>should do with them?
>Ray
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>

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Date: Fri, 8 Jan 1999 06:59:16 -0800
From: "Gillespie, John D."
Subject: RE: FTE Small - Buying Advice for Ranger

Try Baumann Engineering they have a good website concerning Automatic
Overdrive transmissions and electronic Automatic overdrive transmissions for
the all the ford vehicles http://www.ford-trucks.com//lc/lc.php?action=do&link=http://www.baumannengineering.com/index.htm


John Gillespie
66F100 300I6
94 Splash 4.0L (I hate Liters)

Tim wrote:
Watch out for the AOD in 87 Ranger. It's only used in that year's
pickup and is pricey to replace or rebuild. Just been there and done
that with my son. Great truck otherwise.

Tim Bowman
71 F100

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Date: 8 Jan 99 08:54:35 EST
From: CharlesASkarsaune eaton.com
Subject: RE: FTE Small - tig welder

>Date: Thu, 7 Jan 1999 23:30:16 -0700
>From: "Douglas Crann"
>Subject: FTE Small - tig welder
>
>anybody have any suggestions for a tig welder?

Miller DialArc HF, with high frequency start, foot pedal control, option
for water cooled
torch. Love mine.

Chuck

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Date: Fri, 8 Jan 1999 08:00:18 -0700 (MST)
From: "Mark E. Monninger"
Subject: Re: FTE Small - R-12 Freon

It's still legally available, if you have a license. You can get a license
online by taking a test and paying $25. I forget the URL for this but
maybe someone else can supply it. R-12 is pricey, tho...

Mark

On Fri, 8 Jan 1999, Robert Leifer wrote:

> Freon 12 has a value of somewhere around 15 dollars a pound, now that it is
> out of manufacture. you can probably sell them for a lot less to a gas
> station who does AC repairs. maybe 10 bucks a can. Last time I purchased
> R-12, when it was still legally available, I paid 210 dollars for a 30 pound
> container of it. (about 2 or 3 years ago)

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Date: Fri, 8 Jan 1999 10:42:02 -0500
From: "Robert Leifer"
Subject: Re: FTE Small - R-12 Freon

Can I get a license as a brain surgeon on the Internet also? I am far from
being one, but if I have a license, I guess that makes it legal.

My original reply was in response to Ray Shaw, who asked for suggestions as
to what to do with his 4 14 oz. cans of freon.

Bob

- ----- Original Message -----
From: Mark E. Monninger
To:
Sent: Friday, January 08, 1999 10:00 AM
Subject: Re: FTE Small - R-12 Freon


>It's still legally available, if you have a license. You can get a license
>online by taking a test and paying $25. I forget the URL for this but
>maybe someone else can supply it. R-12 is pricey, tho...
>
>Mark
>
>On Fri, 8 Jan 1999, Robert Leifer wrote:
>
>> Freon 12 has a value of somewhere around 15 dollars a pound, now that it
is
>> out of manufacture. you can probably sell them for a lot less to a gas
>> station who does AC repairs. maybe 10 bucks a can. Last time I purchased
>> R-12, when it was still legally available, I paid 210 dollars for a 30
pound
>> container of it. (about 2 or 3 years ago)
>
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Date: Fri, 08 Jan 1999 15:03:45 -0500
From: "Skorupski Lesley"
Subject: FTE Small - Transmission problems

We have a 1992 EB Explorer and it is giving us problems shifing gears
(automatic transmission) in the cold weather. It typically only happens
once or twice but we are not seeing any other symptoms like gear
slippage during normal usage. Has anyone heard of this problem. We
know that there have been problems with the transmission but have also
been told that it could be something else??? We've checked the fluid
level and its normal and does not appear to be leaking.
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Date: Fri, 8 Jan 1999 16:09:55 -0600
From: "Gary Snook"
Subject: FTE Small - Re: Freon In the ionosphere

Richard;
The fine for doing this can be as high as 10,000$. It is a Federal
offense, regulated by the EPA. There is also a finders (squealer's) reward
that can be as much as 5,000$. If you REALLY want to get even........

Not much of a mechanic to take these kind of chances with his money (IMHO)

Gary

>2. My mechanic blew my AC refrigerant into the ionisphere in order to
>get at the core. Many mechanics do this, and it may be simply required
>(the Ford dealer said this was probably neccessary, too). He charged me
>over $100 for replacement R-12.
>
>3. A few people have recommended "4 Winds"-brand heater cores.
>
>4. Blowing R-12 into the air carries a stiff fine in California. I fired
>my mechanic (he was charging me stiff unusual fees for other things,
>too).
>
>Hope this helps.
>
>Richard



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Date: Fri, 8 Jan 1999 20:41:15 -0500
From: "Jim Bielecki"
Subject: FTE Small - Re: Pulse vacuum 4X4 engagement

>Would appreciate the groups input on how it works and if anyone has
>pro's/con's
>or heard any probs associated with this system

The car/truck magazines explained how this system works back in 1998 when it
first appeared. I didn't really pay attention so I have no comment as to
the engineering. I do know that it's a joint venture project between Ford
and somebody else (Borg-Warner?). I can also tell you that it's been
absolutely 100% reliable and effective in my 4X4 '98 Ranger. Snow, ice,
sugar sand, mud ,muck, 20 degrees below zero or 95 degrees above, it always
engages/disengages quickly and quietly. I use the truck for
Forestry-purposes and it spends most of its life in the bush. I've been
very impressed.

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Date: Fri, 08 Jan 1999 21:30:43 -0500
From: Tim Turner
Subject: Re: FTE Small - Your stereo and my ears

John Becker wrote:
>
> ----------

> > Jim, "FrdRngrLvr AOL.COM" wrote:

> > > not played obnixiously. For instance my system never
> gets
> > > turned up after 9pm so nobody has to hear/feel me go by when they are
> trying
> > > to sleep..

Well Kim works nights and gets UP at 4 PM so if you pass my home at 3 PM
you'll surely disturb HER... (Not a good idea!!) ;-)

> >
> > Jim, I want you and many others with high-powered systems to get the
> > point: if I'm in my house and I hear your stereo at _any time of day or
> > night_ you are disturbing the peace inside my house. When I am
> > listening to quiet music in my living room and you go by with your
> > system turned up, you destroy my experience within the privacy of my own
> > home. This is intolerable. If I can hear your stereo, even quietly, I
> > assure you that it is obnoxious.

Well said! I might add that cars are in essence an extension of our
homes and shouldnt be invaded either. I dont mind hearing a SMALL thump
at the light, but when rolling up my window doesnt eliminate the
interference to MY radio (stereo OR CB) is when I start fuming. (Hmmm..
if I put a 1000W linear amp on my CB it ouught to produce enough
harmonics to come in through any nearby stereos.. could be a plan..)

> >
> > It is also against the law in California if your stereo is audible fifty
> > feet from your vehicle. There is a reason for this law. People deserve
> > to be left alone. This includes sound.

Something that hasnt been addressed yet is the AURAL damage to the
owner. I'll be interested to see what percentage of the US population
is hearing impaired 20 years from now Vs. 1985. Maybe I should invest
in stocks of hearing aid manufacturers for my retirement portfolio.

>
> this is becoming the case in many many cites People with these
> hi powered system just dont give a damn till it cost them $75.00 first time

Need to make it $750 for a second offense; when the fine exceeds the
cost of some of the equipment MAYbe people will learn.


Tim
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Date: Fri, 08 Jan 1999 22:14:42 -0500
From: Tim Turner
Subject: Re: FTE Small - Aerostar Heater Core: '92

Richard wrote:
>
> ALFRED BROWN wrote-------------------------
>
> Good Afternoon,
>
> Hope everyone has a prosperous New Year. I have a 1992 Aerostar and
> would like to know how much to replace a Heater Core.
>
> My Reply------------------------------------------------
>
> Ouch!! A nasty job.
> Recently had it done on my '92 Aerostar. After obtaining the info, I
> decided to have it done professionally.

Actually not TOO bad as far as Ford cores go..

>
> Here's what I can say:
>
> 1. You must use a special $50 tool that's available from Napa. It is

I use 90 degree 'bent' needle nose pliers myself.

> to get an idea of why that tool is a must. That heater core is
> mightily-obstructed. Not as obstructed, though, as it is in a Taurus.

Said THAT right!! even after doing a few dozen Tauri it's still 5-6
hours for me; I've seen other tech's take a day and a half, the A'star
is more like 1.5-2.5 (after practice).

> Ford has this thing about your heater cores (it is called "contempt").

And Chrysler.. the newer ones are prone to leakage (bad supplier) AND
take all day (or more). I'm currently in a nightmare heater core; it's
an 88 Audi 80 series and makes the Taurus seem simple.. rather than the
entire dash being pulled back it's OUT. Book time of 6 hours and I'm
some 7 into it and still trying to find the RIGHT replacement as the
wrong one was sent to us. By the time we locate the odd-ball I will
have forgotten where the myriad of screws go so it'll be another 6-7
going back together so 14 hours of work on my end plus a couple on the
service writer's part locating the part all for the price of 6. I'm
glad I dont get paid by the flat!

>
> 2. My mechanic blew my AC refrigerant into the ionisphere in order to
> get at the core.

Illegal since 1992. Carries a STIFF fine too.

> Many mechanics do this, and it may be simply required

Not the smart ones!! It is required to remove the refrigerant in a lot
of cases since the evaporator is in the same box as the heater (HVAC
case); what's supposed to happen is that the existing gas is recovered
and then put BACK into the vehicle afterwards. (The drier should be
replaced since the system was opened BTW..)

> (the Ford dealer said this was probably neccessary, too). He charged me
> over $100 for replacement R-12.

Easily.. Although I would have suggested converting to R-134a at the
time.

> 4. Blowing R-12 into the air carries a stiff fine in California.

And anywhere else in the US and I presume anywhere else that signed the
'greenhouse' treaty.

> I fired
> my mechanic (he was charging me stiff unusual fees for other things,
> too).

GOOD! The sooner all the incompetents/dishonests/wanna-bes get run out
of my profession the better I like it.

Tim Turner/Manic Mechanic
Custer Auto Repair
Wilmington NC
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------------------------------

Date: Fri, 8 Jan 99 19:29:07 PST
From: don neomagic.com (Donald Paauw)
Subject: FTE Small - radio display out

The radio display in my '88 Ranger went out a few years back.
If I look very closely, I can make out the digits but only
in just the right light.

Then, earlier this week, I was in a '90 ranger and it had
exactly the same problem. So I'm wondering if this is a
common problem in Rangers or Ford trucks or all Fords, and
does anyone know the cause or have a cure?

- -- Don
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------------------------------

Date: Fri, 8 Jan 99 19:46:25 PST
From: don neomagic.com (Donald Paauw)
Subject: Re: FTE Small - 02 sensor

>how would i go about changing the o2 sensor in myt 96 ford ranger 2.3
>liter thanks

I'll add to the question: I read in a book that O2 sensors needed an
HEGO wrench or a "weather head" (if I recall the term correctly) wrench.
Is there any reason a standard wrench shouldn't be used?

- -- Don
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