fordtrucks80up-digest Tuesday, September 2 1997 Volume 01 : Number 089
Ford Truck Enthusiasts - 1980 And Newer Trucks Digest
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In this issue:
Re: Which Tires? [Jerad Heffner ]
Re: ABS [Bill Funk ]
FW: Explorer manual transmission won't shift correctly [Barry Nestor
Re: ABS ["C. E. White" ]
Re: ABS ["C. E. White" ]
Re: 86 Bronco 4.9 L Performance [droberts MIT.EDU (D Robertson)]
Re: ABS ["C. E. White" ]
Re: fordtrucks80up-digest V1 #88 [Pwhite57 aol.com]
a/c compressor for 91 Ranger 2.3l [Dan Simoes ]
'93 Ranger Cruise Control [Daniel Chace ]
RE: '93 Ranger Cruise Control ["Beaman, James" ]
Hi, i'm new to this list. I have an '84 Ranger 4x4, std cab, long bed. I
just put BFG All-Terrains on it last month, and so far, they're great
tires! Getting the right size and wheel combo can give you a real
aggressive look (if that's what you're going for). I haven't had the chance
to try them out in the mud or snow yet, but i will this winter, wa-hoo! My
father also has the same tires, bigger though, and he's had one instance
where there was a little mud he had to go through. Nothing serious, but a
low car wouldn't make it. He didn't even need 4-wheel drive, and there was
minimal tire slip. So far, they're great tires! I'm looking forward to
putting them to the test.
My Ranger has the 2.3L. Does anyone know of relative cheap HP increases? I
want to put in a V6 from an '87 or newer, altough a 302 would be nice :). I
don't have that kind of money right now. I do have a picture of my truck on
the internet, although it now looks different with my new tires. Also, the
picture quality is kinda poor, all of which is my fault.
Max Dooley wrote:
> reply to : Dale Grein
> I don't know about the hoosier a/t's but BFGoodrich 31x10x15 All
> Terrains or Mud Terrains are really good tires. I had a Toyota with BFG
> Mud Terrains and would go anywhere I pleased in the snow and ice. They
> also handle very well for that big of a tire. They hummed a little,
> however it was barely noticeable with the windows up, air and radio on.
> I was very pleased with their wear also. During the three years that I
> had them I put 34K miles on them and could barely notice any wear. Also
> I never had one flat or difficulty with them. Your favorites, Mickey
> T's, wear a lot faster and are more exspensive. I feel the BFG's
> perform just as well for the money.
> +-------------- Ford Truck Enthusiasts - 1980 and Newer --------------+
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> +-- Visit Our Web Site: http://www.ford-trucks.com/ --+
> Date: Mon, 1 Sep 1997 15:52:02 -0400 (EDT)
> From: "C. E. White III"
> Subject: Re: ABS
> At 02:25 AM 8/30/97 -0700, you wrote:
> > On dry pavement, where the vast majority of miles are driven,
> > ABS is better than even modulated braking, much less locked tires, with
> the > average driver.
> I really need to research this. I just cannot believe it. Maye I am stupid,
> but it sure is "conter-intuitive".
> Ed White
Any library will have much info on this.
ABS works very simply, on a well-known principle.
You get maximum braking when the tires are just *that* far from breaking
into a skid. Modulating the brakes is a technique of braking where the
driver brakes hard, and lets off slightly when he feels a skid start,
re-applying pressure when the skid stops, etc. ABS does this same thing,
by monitoring the wheel rotation, and comparing it with a table of
deceleration speeds; when the wheel decelleration exceeds that for a
non-skidding wheel, the brakes are released for a fraction of a second,
allowing the wheel to gain traction, then re-applied. With a human
driver, this can be done over a period of anywhere from a second to
three seconds, and imperfectly. With ABS, it is done many times a
second, and correctly each time. The end result is that the tires remain
on the threshold of a skid much longer with ABS, applying maximum
braking effort, and at the same time, providing steering control, which
modulation won't usually provide with the same braking effort.
Fact is, on those surfaces we drive on most, ABS will beat all but the
most expert, experienced drivers. ABS *should* provide an extra margin
of braking safety, and reduce accidents; the fact that the expected
reduction in accidents hasn't happened is puzzling. Most safety experts
believe that the extra safety margin is taken up by the drivers who now
expect it, and push the envelope that extra bit, negating any benefits
Im *my* experience, which is mine and no one else's, I tend to leave a
lot of room between my truck and the vehicle in front of me,and don't
have to apply heavy brakes often. In '92, when another driver made a
left turn at a light into the left side of my truck, I simply tromped on
the brakes, leaving two very black skid marks from the front tires, as I
slid into another car. The rear ABS kept the rear wheels from locking
up, providing me with no steering, and, of course, no help on braking
from the front tires, where most of the braking was taking place.
However, on the Explorer, with 4-wheel ABS, when (in my opinion) I was
being set up for an insurance fraud accident, a car pulled in front of
us and hit the brakes. The ABS worked perfectly; we stopped before the
car in front of us did. This was paretly due to the fact that, on seeing
the car pull in front of us, I was already moving my foot to the break
pedal, as he was only about ten feet in front of us. When his brake
lights came on, I was already on my brakes. He was trying to stop as
hard as he could; without ABS, he was skidding with all four wheels
locked. With ABS, I was stopping, with no wheels locked.
President, ASCII User Group
Date: Tue, 2 Sep 1997 11:52:45 -0400
From: Barry Nestor
Subject: FW: Explorer manual transmission won't shift correctly
2nd try, the first one was refused.
From: Barry Nestor
Sent: Monday, September 01, 1997 9:31 PM
To: 'fordtrucks80up listserve.net'
Subject: Explorer manual transmission won't shift correctly
I've got a 91 Explorer 5spd that has developed some problems over the =
couple of days and I'm hoping someone might be able to shed some light =
what the problems might be. Some details; this vehicle has 125,000 mile =
drive 33 miles each way to work in slow to moderate levels of traffic, =
the clutch and trans are the originals,the trans does leak (slow drip) =
and a local dealer has claimed that its in the need of a reseal. Friday =
morning I went to back=20
out of the driveway when I heard this loud bang upon letting the clutch =
out.(I always leave it in reverse) Then I down the road I noticed I =
coudn't shift into=20
2nd without stopping and going to 1rst, then it will usually let me =
next time I'm moving and want to hit 2nd, then I'll have to stop again. =
was frequently grinding when trying to hit 3rd. None of this has ever =
previous to last Friday. The shifting has always been kind of notchy but =
I figured it was just the way the transmission was designed. I want to =
ask a co-worker who is familiar with Fords to look at it but I don't =
know when he'll be back at work.=20
Does anyone have any ideas about what could be the cause of this? When I =
do go to have it fixed I don't want to be ignorant of what the likely =
causes might be. I will stay away from the local Ford dealer, stayed up =
last night reading transmission horror stories involving dealers on the =
net and with my luck I'd end up in the same situation.=20
My biggest concern of the moment is whether I'm doing anymore damage by=20
continuing to drive it?
If anyone has any advice or insight I would sure appreciate it. I'm =
looking forward to being part of this list.
Digital Equipment Corp
The usual disclaimers apply. The views expressed herewithin are those of =
my own and do not represent in any way those of Digital Equipment =
Bill Funk wrote:
> Any library will have much info on this.
> ABS works very simply, on a well-known principle.......
> Bill Funk
Some more interesting stuff in support of my view....
Finding replacement ABS parts is difficult and many $$$. Do you really
want ABS? Here is the text of a recent news article
(Associated Press, January 20, 1997):
Anti-lock brakes fail their driving test
Cars with anti-lock brakes are more likely to be involved in fatal
crashes than cars without them, according to an insurance
Cars with anti-lock brakes are especially more likely to be in crashes
where no other car is involved but a passenger is killed,
the study by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety said.
"These findings add to the evidence that anti-lock brakes aren't
producing overall safety benefits," said Brian O'Neill,
president of the Arlington, VA-based institute that is backed by
insurance companies. The study found a passenger had a 45
percent greater chance of dying in a single-vehicle crash in a caar with
anti-lock brakes compared with riding in the same car
with old-style brakes.
The passenger's chance of dying in a car with anti-lock brakes increased
by 65 percent when the car was on wet pavement -
a surface anti-lock brakes are suppose to handle better, the study said.
The increased risk of death for any passenger in a car with anti-lock
brakes during a multiple-ehicle accident is 6 percent, the
The insitute based its results on nearly 1,000 fatal crashes from 1986
to 1995 in the government's Fatal Accident Reporting
System, which accumulates data on all crashes reported in the United
Last year, the head of the National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration, Dr. Ricardo Martinez, warned that drivers
unfamiliar with anti-lock brakes maythink the brakes are not working
and, as a result, take a foot off the pedal or turn the
steering wheel too much if the car starts to slide.
Bill Funk wrote:
> Any library will have much info on this.
> ABS works very simply, on a well-known principle..........
> Bill Funk
A little more info....
A guide to the brave new world of braking
BY FRANCES CERRA WHITTELSEY
It would be nice if the answer were simple. A clear-cut answer, based on
properly done accident analyses. But the answer
has to be, it depends on the car. If you are considering the purchase of
an ABS-equipped car, your test drive should include a
simulated panic stop, preferably on gravel, sand or a bumpy road. Only
then will you know if you want to trust your life to that
The problem with todays generation of anti-lock braking systems is that
they are not all the same. No government standard
specifies their performance. Only a standard for ordinary brakes exists,
and it measures performance only on dry, smooth
Data and anecdotal experience, meanwhile, suggest that cars with ABS get
into trouble on bad roads, and the result is deadly
for their drivers. A 1995 study by the National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration found a 107 percent increase in fatal
side-crashes involving ABS cars on bad roads, and a 94 percent increase
in fatal roll-overs on bad roads. An earlier study
found an increase of 28 percent in fatal run-off-the-road crashes.
Several studies agree that ABS-equipped cars take longer to stop on
gravel, bumpy roads or fresh snow.
But the studies arent all bad. They report a reduction in front-to-rear
crashes of 40 percent and a 27 percent drop in fatal
collisions with pedestrians.
No comparison studies
None of the studies so far allows you to compare accident results from
one car manufacturer to another. But, for example,
drivers of Mercedes-Benz automobiles -- which began equipping its cars
with ABS in 1978, the first to do so -- say that
while their brake pedal vibrates slightly during a stop in which the
anti-lock system kicks in, the performance is smooth,
predictable and effective, allowing them to steer to avoid a collision.
SIS is also not aware of any pattern of problems with the
ABS brakes on Cadillacs or Buicks, for exmple, whose systems are made
for General Motors by Robert Bosch, not
VarityKelsey-Hayes, and may differ signifcantly in design or cost.
Remember also that ABS is designed for crash avoidance. It does nothing
to make the car, and the people inside it, any safer
when a crash does occur. Wheelbase size and weight are actually the
single best predictors of safety. The deadliest vehicles
on the road, according to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety,
are small pick-up trucks (under 3,500 pounds), with
225 occupant deaths per million registered vehicles, and small cars
(wheelbase less than 95 inches), with 241 deaths. In
contrast, cars with a wheelbase of 110 inches or more have 109 deaths
per million registered vehicles.
A growing percentage of new cars are sold with ABS as standard
equipment, so the decision to walk away may be hard to
make if you like everything else about the car except the brakes. But do
just that if your test drive makes you uneasy. Dont
discount your experience and assume an auto maker couldnt possibly be
selling cars with brakes that lead to accidents. They
can. And they have.
Bill Funk wrote:
> Any library will have much info on this.
> ABS works very simply........
> Bill Funk
I thought this was interesting....
THE EDUCATIONAL AND RESEARCH FOUNDATION OF
MOTOR & EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS ASSOC., INC.
ABS EDUCATION ALLIANCE
For more information, please contact:
Rosemarie Kitchin (919) 549-4800
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT ABS
What is ABS?
ABS is an acronym for anti-lock braking system, one of the most
significant safety advances in automotive engineering in
recent decades. First developed and patented in 1936, ABS is actually
derived from the German term antiblockiersystem.
Anti-lock brakes are designed to prevent skidding and help drivers
maintain steering control during an emergency stopping
situation. In cars equipped with conventional brakes, the driver pumps
the brakes, whereas in cars equipped with four-wheel
ABS, the driver keeps a firm foot on the brake, allowing the system to
rapidly and automatically pump the brakes. Because
the wheels don't lock, drivers have the ability to steer around hazards
if they are unable to stop in time.
What does ABS do for me?
ABS can improve vehicle stability, steerability and stopping capability.
When the braking force created by the driver is greater than the tire
can handle, the wheel can lock up. Locked wheels can
create vehicle instability problems and prevent steering around
obstacles in the road. Stopping distance on many slippery
surfaces will also increase with locked wheels. Four-wheel ABS prevents
wheel lock-up in situations in which the wheels
might normally lock, such as on slippery roads.
ABS can also prevent tire damage. Locked wheels on dry asphalt or
concrete can quickly create flat spots on tires, which can
cause an annoying vibration while driving. The big advantage, however,
is the maintenance of the tire -- a significant factor in
Most anti-lock brake systems will indicate their operation by pulsations
in the brake pedal and a noticeable sound. If the
driver notices these pulsations and sounds, it is an indication that the
roads are slippery. Speed and following distance should t
herefore be adjusted.
To reap the maximum safety benefits of ABS, drivers must know how to use
the system correctly.
How does it work?
In vehicles equipped with conventional brakes, drivers often apply their
brakes to the point at which the wheels lock up. This
results in a loss of steering control and lessthan-maximum braking
When a driver operating a four-wheel ABS-equipped vehicle steps firmly
on the brake pedal, the system automatically
modulates the brake pressure at all four wheels, adjusting pressure to
each wheel independently to prevent wheel lock-up.
With ABS, stopping distances decrease in many cases and the driver can
maintain steering control of the vehicle. Importantly,
four-wheel ABS allows the driver continuing control to help steer around
hazards if a complete stop cannot be accomplished
in ti me.
How do you know your ABS is working?
Most anti-lock brake systems let you know when you have activated your
ABS. The driver usually notices a mechanical
sound and can feel some pulsation or increased resistance in the brake
pedal. This means traction limits have been reached on
the road be ing traveled. It is important not to take your foot off the
brake pedal when you hear noise or feel vibrations, but
instead continue to apply firm pressure.
What is the difference between rear-wheel anti-locks (RWAL) and
Rear-wheel ABS, found exclusively on light trucks, is designed to
maintain directional stability. Four-wheel anti-lock brakes,
usually found on passenger cars and some light trucks, are designed to
maintain steerability in emergency stopping situations.
Because the braking system in a four-wheel anti-lock vehicle modulates
the braking pressure and thereby prevents wheel lock
on all four wheels, the driver maintains control over steering. Drivers
of RWAL vehicles, on the other hand, control the
braking a nd thus the lock prevention capabilities of the front wheels.
If the driver steps too firmly on the brake pedal, the front
wheels can lock and prevent steering -the same that would happen with
conventional brakes. But with RWAL ABS, the
vehicle continue s to move in a straight line. With just enough pressure
applied, the driver with RWAL can maintain steering
Drivers of four-wheel ABS cars should step firmly on the brake in an
emergency stopping situation and keep their foot on the
pedal. Drivers of RWAL vehicles should step firmly with care, and if
they feel the wheels begin to lock, they should withhold
som e pressure.
Do cars with ABS stop more quickly than cars without it?
Not always. Although the stopping distance with ABS is shorter under
most road conditions, drivers should always keep a
safe distance behind the vehicle in front of them and maintain a speed
consistent with the road conditions. While a vehicle with
ABS maintains its steering capability in a sudden stop, it may not turn
as quickly on a slippery road as it would on dry
Can you lose steerability?
The tire can deliver a fixed amount of traction for the road conditions.
This traction is divided between steering and braking. A
driver can continue to steer a vehicle using maximum ABS braking but not
as sharply as he or she could without braking.
Can ABS stop all car skids?
While ABS cannot prevent all skids, it does prevent the wheels from
locking in typical panic situations. ABS cannot, however,
change the laws of physics. A combination of excessive speed, sharp
turns and slamming brakes can still throw an
ABS-equipped v ehicle into a sideways skid.
In what circumstances might conventional brakes have an advantage over
There are some conditions where stopping distance may be shorter without
ABS. For example, in cases where the road is
covered with loose gravel or freshly fallen snow, the locked wheels of a
non-ABS car build up a wedge of gravel or snow,
which can contr ibute to a shortening of the braking distance.
If I live in the Snow Belt, how can I benefit from ABS?
Even in fresh snow conditions, you gain the advantages of better
steerability and stability with four-wheel ABS than with a
conventional system that could result in locked wheels.
In exchange for an increased stopping distance, the vehicle will remain
stable and maintain full steering since the wheels won't
be locked. The gain in stability makes a potential increase in stopping
distances an acceptable compromise for most drivers.
All in all, these benefits outweigh the rare instances where the ABS
system increases distances over non-ABS equipped
Does ABS work on ice?
Yes. The system's computer monitors the speed of each of the vehicle's
wheels, compares them and adjusts brake pressure to
each wheel to ensure the car stops in the shortest distance possible for
most road surfaces.
Will pumping the brakes on ABS-equipped vehicles improve braking
NO! When in use, the ABS automatically varies the brake pressure much
better than pumping can. Do not pump the brakes;
apply force firmly.
What if the ABS fails?
Anti-lock brake systems are designed to be fail-safe. Nevertheless, they
are equipped with a diagnostic feature that
automatically activates and tests the major components each time the car
is started and monitors them throughout the journey.
In the rare event of a failure, the ABS would be deactivated by its own
safety circuit. A warning light goes on indicating to the
driver that the vehicle is now in conventional base-brake mode.
Why invest in a system you may use only a few times?
When you consider that ABS can protect your automotive investment, your
health and safety, passengers and other motorists,
ABS is a good investment.
Most people agree the investment in ABS proves its worth if it prevents
just one accident. Maybe that's why nearly nine out of
10 first-time ABS buyers in Europe are repeat buyers.
What's the outlook for ABS being offered on more American cars?
ABS Education Alliance members predict ABS will be offered on virtually
every American-made car model by the year
2000. According to Automotive News, the Big Three automobile makers --
General Motors, Ford and Chrysler -- all plan to
gradually increase t he number of car models offering ABS over the next
How do I know if the vehicle I'm driving has ABS?
Most newer car models offer ABS as either standard or optional
equipment. There are different ways to find out whether your
car has an anti-lock brake system:
If you buy or lease a new car, ask your dealer. Check your instrument
panel for an ABS indicator light after you turn on the
ignition. Read your owner's manual. If renting a vehicle, check with the
rental car company when picking it up.
To determine if your vehicle has rear-wheel or four-wheel ABS:
Read the owner's manual.
Ask your dealer.
If you buy or lease a new vehicle, check the window sticker
A qualified mechanic can tell you by checking under the hood
and reviewing the brake hose routings and ABS
Distributed with permission of the ABS Education Alliance of which ITT
Automotive is proud to be a member.
As for the problems with the clutch on your Ford trucks. I had a 1990
F150 with a 4.9 and 5 speed. I had the firewall bracket installed to stop the
flex of the wall, however the problem turned out to be the bushing in the
clutch / brake assembly. Believe it or not, the bushing was worn and the
pedal would twist ever so slightly when I depressed the clutch, causing the
"Neutral Safety Switch" to malfunction.
I fought with the problem for a few months, but as soon as I had the
bushing replaced, the problem was solved. Check it out, it will surprise you.
Date: Tue, 2 Sep 1997 14:07:04 -0400 (EDT)
From: Dan Simoes
Subject: a/c compressor for 91 Ranger 2.3l
Does anyone have a cheap used, or know of a source for, a compressor
for the above? 2.3l, a/c, auto.
Also, can someone recommend a good repair manual. It's scary, I can't
even see where the (twin) spark plugs go...
| Dan |
Dan Simoes dans ans.net
ANS Communications http://www.ford-trucks.com//lc/lc.php?action=do&link=http://coimbra.ans.net/dans.html
100 Clearbrook Road (914) 789-5378 (voice)
Elmsford, NY 10523 (914) 789-5310 (fax)
Date: Tue, 2 Sep 1997 13:55:01 -0500
From: Daniel Chace
Subject: '93 Ranger Cruise Control
I have a problem with my Cruise control on my '93 4.0L Ranger. It is
intermitenet, in that sometimes it works as it should, other times it doesnt
work at all. The majority of the time, if I turn it on and press set, nothing
happens. If i hold the set/accel button it will start accelerating but when I
let up it wont hold.
Im hoping that someone has excperienced a similar problem and/or knows of a
quick (and inexpensive!) fix!
Date: Tue, 02 Sep 1997 15:23:16 -0500
From: "Beaman, James"....To access the rest of this feature you must be a logged in Registered User
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